Wildlife Tourism Research Literature

Wildlife Tourism Research Literature

This page provides a searchable bibliography of wildlife tourism related references from Australia and internationally. The references are progressively updated, but if you know of any we’ve missed please let us know and we’ll add them in.

Downloadable Bibliography

In addition to the summary list below, the references are classified in the attached 2008 spreadsheet according to the following categories and can be sorted and searched extensively (an update is planned for next year):

  • LOCATION – indicates geographical focus of the reference: Australia, Overseas, Non-specific.
  • DISCIPLINE – indicates disciplinary areas that apply in the reference (usually contains several): General , Business, Conservation benefits , Economics, Ethics, Guidelines copies, Guidelines literature, Hosts , Indigenous, Interpretation, Visitors, Tourism impacts, Wildlife tourism impacts, Wildlife management, Wildlife feeding, Aggression, Operation, Products, Conservation Other, Marketing.
  • SUBSECTOR – indicates the sector of wildlife tourism that the reference is focused upon: Nature-based Tourism, Un-Specific WT, Birdwatching, Fishing, Hunting, Land viewing, Marine viewing, Zoos, Cetacea, Kangaroo Island and Seals, Mon Repos and Turtles, Phillip Island and Penguins.

Download: Wildlife Tourism Bibliography Jan 2008

  • ABC Online. (2004). “The World Today Archive-Whale-watching report.”
  • Acero, J. M. and Aguirre, C. A. (1994). “A monitoring research plan for tourism in Antarctica.” Annals of Tourism Research 21(2): 295-302.
  • Adamic, M. (1997). “The analysis of key sources of mortality of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Slovenia in the last 6 years period (1.4.1991-31.3.1997).” Zbornik gozdarstvza in lesarstva 53: 5-28.
  • Adams, C. E., J. A. Leifester, et al. (1997). “Understanding wildlife consituents: birders and waterfowl hunters.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(3): 653-660.
  • Adams, W. M. and M. Infield (2003). “Who is on the Gorilla’s Payroll? Claims on Tourist Revenue From a Ugandan National Park.” World Development 31(1): 177-190.
  • Ahlund, M. and F. Gotmark (1989). “Gull predation on eider ducklings Somateria mollissima: effects of human disturbance.” Biological Conservation 48: 115-117.
  • Aiello, R. L., A. Cammick, et al. (1999). Breaking the “Rules”: Life within the Marine Tourism Industry. Interpretation Australia Association National Conference: The Human Factor in Interpretation, Hobart, Interpretation Australian Association.
  • Akama, J. S. (1996). “Western environmental values and nature-based tourism in Kenya.” Tourism Management 17(8): 567-574.
  • Akama, J. S. and D. M. Kieti (2003). “Measuring tourist satisfaction with Kenya’s wildlife safari: a case study of Tsavo West National Park.” Tourism Management 24: 73-81.
  • Akama, J. S. and K. I. Ondimu (2001). “Tourism product development and the changing consumer demand: A case study of Kenya.” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 6(1): 56-62.
  • Alaska Department of Game and Fish (2000). Wildlife Viewing Guidelines. Kodiak, Kodiak Organisation: 1-2.
  • Alcock, D. (1991). “Education and extension: management’s best strategy.” Australian Parks and Recreation 27: 15-17.
  • Alder, J. and M. Haste (1995). The Cod Hole: a case study in adaptive management. Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology. O. Bellwood, H. Choat and N. Saxena. Townsville, Queensland, James Cook University: 427-436.
  • Alderman, C. L. (1994). “The Economics and the Role of Privately-owned Lands, Used for Nature Tourism, Education, and Conservation.” Protected Area Economics and Policy: 273-317.
  • Allen, S. (1997). Dominance interactions between provisioned bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Moreton Bay, Australia. Dept of Geographical Sciences and Planning and School of Marine Science. Brisbane, University of Queensland: 2.
  • Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums (2003). Wildlife Observation, California Coastal Commission: 1-3.
  • Amante-Helwig, V. (1996). “Ecotourists’ beliefs and knowledge about dolphins and the development of cetacean ecotourism.” Aquatic Mammals 22(2): 131-140.
  • American Birding Association (2003). American Birding Association’s Principles of Birding Ethics, American Birding Association: 1-3.
  • American Society of Travel Agents (2001). Ten Commandments on Ecotourism, American Society of Travel Agents.
  • Ames, P. L. and G. S. Mersereau (1964). “Some factors in the decline of the osprey in Connecticut.” The Auk 81: 173-185.
  • Anderson, D. W. and J. O. Keith (1980). “The human influence on seabird nesting success: conservation implications.” Biological Conservation 18: 65-80.
  • Anderson, R., J. D. C. Linnell, et al. (1996). “Short term behavioural and physiological response of moose Alces alces to military disturbance in Norway.” Biological Conservation 77: 169-176.
  • Anon (?). Code of Behaviour – For guides and tour leaders who bring people into the Penneshaw Penguin Colony: 1-2.
  • Anon (?). Evaluating Destination Image: Reducing the Scale to Managed Visitor Attractions: 40.
  • Anon (1989). Wildlife Watching: Paradise for nature lovers. Australia: The Australian Tourism Commission Newsletter, Australian Tourism Commission. Spring: 8-9.
  • Anon (1990). Approaches to local participation: The African Experience. Ecotourism and Resource Conservation: A collection of papers. J. Kusler.
  • Anon (1992). Bear Facts – The Essentials for Travelling in Bear Country.
  • Anon (1997). Antarctica a travel hot spot. Weekend Australian: 7.
  • Anon (2000). Bare’s fine as Vic joins the Bondi babes. The Sydney Morning Herald: 24.
  • Anon (2003). NGO’s as Conservation Agents. Marine Ecotourism Issues and Experiences. B. Garrod, Wilson, J.C. Church Point, Channel View Publications: 108-121.
  • Anon (2004). Artificial glow-worm cave gets green light to open. The Shire News: 1.
  • ANZECC (1998). ANZECC Humpback Whale Research and Conservation Seminar, Brisbane 1998, QLD Dept of Environment and Heritage.
  • Ap, J. and J. Crompton (1998). “Developing and Testing a Tourism Impact Scale.” Travel Research 37(2): 120-130.
  • Aretino, B., Holland, P., Peterson, D., Schuele, M. (2001). Creating Markets for Biodiversity: A case study of Earth Sanctuaries Ltd. Productivity Commission Staff Research Paper. Canberra, ACT.
  • Arita, H. T. (1996). “The conservation of cave-roosting bats in Yucatan, Mexico.” Biological Conservation 76(2): 177-185.
  • Arluke, A. and C. R. Sanders (1996). Regarding Animals. Philadelphia, Temple University Press.
  • Armsden, A. (1997). “Captive Audiences.” Geographical 69(11): 6-7.
  • Aslin, H. J. and D. H. Bennett (1999). Wildlife and world views: Australian attitudes to wildlife. International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Brisbane.
  • Au, W. W. L. and M. Green (2000). “Acoustic interaction of humpback whales and whale-watching boats.” Marine Environmental Research 49: 469-481.
  • Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA) (?). ARAZPA – Code of Practice, Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA): 1-12.
  • Australian Alps National Parks (?). River Users Code, Australian Alps National Parks.
  • Australian Alps National Parks (1993). Car-based Camping Code, Australian Alps National Parks.
  • Australian Alps National Parks (1993). Snow Camping Code, Australian Alps National Parks.
  • Australian Alps National Parks (1994). Horse Riding Code, Australian Alps National Parks.
  • Australian Alps National Parks (1997). Bushwalking Code, Australian Alps National Parks.
  • Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) (1997). Guide to environmental legislation in Australia and New Zealand. Canberra, Dept of Environment, Sports and Territories.
  • Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) (2000). Australian National Guidelines for Cetacean Observation and Areas of Special Interest for Cetacean Observation. Environment Australia: 1-20.
  • Aveling, C. and R. Aveling (1989). “Gorilla conservation in Zaire.” Oryx 23(2): 64-70.
  • Baker, J. E. (1997). “Trophy hunting as a sustainable use of wildlife resources in southern and eastern Africa.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(4): 306-321.
  • Ballantyne, R., J. Packer, et al. (1998). “Targeted Interpretation: Exploring relationships among visitors’ motivations, actitivies, attitudes, information needs and preferences.” Journal of Tourism Studies 9(2): 14-25.
  • Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. and Falk, J. (2011). “Visitors’ learning for environmental sustainability: Testing short and long term impacts of wildlife tourism experiences using structural equation modelling.” Tourism Management 32 (6): 1243-1252.
  • Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. and Sutherland, L. (2011). “Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences.” Tourism Management 32 (4): 770-779.
  • Ballantyne, R. and Packer, J. (in press). Using tourism free-choice learning experiences to promote environmentally sustainable behaviour: the role of post-visit ‘action resources’. Environmental Education Research.
  • Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. and Sutherland, L. (in press) Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences. Tourism Management.
  • Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. & Hughes, K. (2009).  Tourists’ support for conservation messages and sustainable management practices in wildlife tourism experiences. Tourism Management, 30, 658-664.
  • Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., Hughes, K., and Dierking, L. (2007).  Conservation learning in wildlife tourism settings: lessons from research in zoos and aquariums.  Environmental Education Research, 13 (3), 367-383.
  • Ballantyne, R. and Packer, J. (2005). Promoting environmentally sustainable attitudes and behaviour through free-choice learning experiences: What’s the state of the game?, Environmental Education Research, 11 (3), 281-295.
  • Barany, M. E., A. L. Hammett, et al. (2001). “The Role of Private Wildlife Reserves in Nicaragua’s Emerging Ecotourism Industry.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9(2): 95-110.
  • Barnes, F. W. (1994). Chapter 17: Sustainable Development in African Game Parks. Principles of Conservation Biology. G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll. Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates, Inc.: 504-511.
  • Barnes, J. I. and J. L. V. deJager (1996). “Economic and financial incentives for wildlife use on private land in Namibia and the implications for policy.” South African Journal of Wildlife Research 26(2): 37-46.
  • Barnes, J., J. Burgess, et al. (1992). Chapter 6: Wildlife Tourism. Economics for the Wilds: wildlands, diversity and development. T. M. Swanson and E. B. Barbier. London, Earthscan Publications: 136-150.
  • Barter, M., Newsome, D. and Calver, M. (2008) Preliminary quantitative data on behavioural responses of Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) to human approach on Penguin Island, Western Australia, Journal of Ecotourism 7 (2&3): 192-212
  • Batten, L. A. (1977). “Sailing on reservoirs and its effects on water birds.” Biological Conservation 11: 49-58.
  • Batten, P. and D. Stancil (1976). Living Trophies. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
  • Bauer, J. J. and K. M. Cosgriff (2001). Hunting, multi-cultural society and environmental change in Australia. Veterinary Conservation Biology Conference, Sydney.
  • Bauer, J., Herr, A., (2004). Hunting and Fishing Tourism -Chapter 4. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 57-77.
  • Bayless, D. S., J. C. Bergstrom, et al. (1994). “Assessing the demand for designated wildlife viewing sites.” Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing 2(3): 75-93.
  • Beaumont, N. (1997). Perceived crowding as as evaluative standard for determining social carrying capacity in tourist recreation areas: The case of Green Island, North Queensland. Tourism planning and policy in Australia and New Zealand: Cases, issues and practice. C. M. Hall, J. Jenkins and G. Kearsley. Sydney, Irwin Publishers.
  • Beckman, E. A. (1987). “Interpretation in Australia – Current Status and Future Prospects.” Australian Parks and Recreation 23: 6-14.
  • Beckman, E. A. (1992). Environmental interpretation for education and management in Australian national parks and other protected areas, University of new England.
  • Beckman, E. A. (2001). ‘Be Dingo Smart’ – Managing Visitors to Manage Dingoes. IAA Conference.
  • Beeton, S. (2004). Business Issues in Wildlife Tourism – Chapter 10. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 187-209.
  • Bell, D. V. and L. W. Austin (1985). “The game-fishing season and its effects on overwintering wildfowl.” Biological Conservation 33: 65-80.
  • Benson, D. E. (1987). Section B-7: Wildlife utilization on private land in South Africa with implications for the United States. Valuing Wildlife: Economic and Social Perspectives. D. D. Decker and G. R. Goff. London, Westview Press: 376-381.
  • Benson, D. E. (2001). “Wildlife and Recreation Management on Private Lands in the United States.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1): 359-371.
  • Berris, M. (2001). Neo Notes No.2: Guiding Protocols for dealing with groups on Seal Bay Beach. Seal Bay Conservation Park, SA NPW.
  • Berrow, S. D. (2003). Chapter 4: An Assessment of the Framework, Legislation and Monitoring Required to Develop Genuinely Sustainable Whalewatching. Marine Ecotourism Issues and Experiences. B. Garrod, Wilson, J.C. Church Point, Channel View Publications: 66, 73-75.
  • Berwick, S. H. and V. B. Sahara (1995). The Development of International Principles and Practices of Wildlife Research and Management: Asian and American Approaches. Delhi, Oxford University Press: 295-323.
  • Bhuiyan, M., Siwar, C., Ismail, S.M. et al (2011). “The role of home stay for ecotourism development in East Coast Economic Region.” American Journal of Applied Sciences 8 (6): 540-54
  • Big Volcano (2001). Code of Practice for Ecotourism Operators, Big Volcano,: 1-2.
  • Biggs D, Turpie J., Fabriclus C, Spenceley A. The value of avitourism for conservation and job creation – An analysis from South Africa.  Conservat Soc [serial online] 2011 [cited 2013 Feb 24]; 9:80-90.  Available from www.conservationandsociety.org/text.asp?2011/9/1/80/79198
  • Birds Australia (1999). Guidelines on Recreational Bird Watching: Information Sheet No.9. Hawthorn, Victoria, Birds Australia: 1-4.
  • Birds Australia (2002). Bird Hides for Birders and Builders-Information Sheet No.8. Hawthorn East, Bird Australia: 1-2.
  • Birds Australia (2002). Sharing our Beaches with Birds. Hawthorn East, Birds Australia: 1-2.
  • Birtles, A. (2002). Information for dwarf minke whale interactions in the great barrier reef world heritage area- Code of Practice for dwarf minke whale-human interactions, CRC Reef Research Centre: 1-5.
  • Birtles, A., M. Cuthill, et al. (1996). Incorporating Research on Visitor Experiences into Ecologically Sustainable Management of Whale Shark Tourism. Ecotourism and Nature-Based Tourism: Taking the next steps. Ecotourism Association of Australia. H. Richins, J. Richardson and A. Crabtree. Brisbane, Ecotourism Association of Australia: 195-202.
  • Birtles, A., P. Valentine, et al. (2001). Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife: Opportunities and responsibilities. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia. Gold Coast, Queensland, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
  • Bitgood, S., A. Benefield, et al. (1986). Understanding Your Visitors: Ten Factors that Influence Their Behaviour. Jacksonville, Centre for Social Design – Jacksonville State University: 17.
  • Bitgood, S., A. Benefield, et al. (1988). “Exhibit Design and Visitor Behaviour: Empirical Relationships.” Environment and Behaviour 20(4): 474-491.
  • Blakesley, J. A. and K. P. Reese (1988). “Avian use of campground and noncampground sites in riparian zones.” Wildlife Management 52(3): 399-402.
  • Blamey, R. (1995). The Nature of Ecotourism. Canberra, BTR: 132-139.
  • Blangy, S., J. Genot, et al. (1992). “Ecotourism in Berezinsky: Opportunties and Constraints.” Ecodecision Leisure and Environment 20(Spring): 61-65.
  • Boswell, J. (1982). “Hunter’s guide to Australian game anatomy: Grey kangaroo.” Australian Shooter’s Journal(May): 52-55.
  • Boswell, J. (1984). “Hunter’s guide to Australian game anatomy: Red kangaroo.” Australian Shooter’s Journal(March): 57-62.
  • Bowman, B. (1989). Development of Farm and Country Holidays in Australia. Canberra, The Australian Tourism Industry Association,: 11-18.
  • Boyle, S. A. and F. B. Samson (1985). “Effects of Nonconsumptive Recreation on Wildlife: A Review.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 13: 110-116.
  • Bradley, M. P., C. Lambert, et al. (?). “Reproduction and captive breeding as a tool for mammal conservation: The role of modern zoos.” Australian Mammalogy.
  • Braithwaite, R. W. and R. C. Reynolds (1996). Wildlife Tourism at Yellow Waters: Final Report. Darwin, NT, CSIRO & Northern Territory University: 119-229.
  • Brandon, K. (1993). Basic steps toward encouraging local participation in nature tourism projects. Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers – Volume 1. K. Lindberg and D. E. Hawkins. Vermont, The Ecotourism Society. 1.
  • Brattstrom, B. H. and M. C. Bondello (1983). Effects of off-road vehicle noise on desert vertebrates. Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions. R. H. Webb and H. G. Wilshire. New York, Springer-Verlag.
  • Brieze, I., J. K. Blackshaw, et al. (1995). A Comparison of the Behavioural Ecology of Provisioned and Non-Provisioned Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Eleventh Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando, Florida, USA.
  • British Columbia Ministry of Water, L. a. A. P. (2002). Interim wildlife guidelines for commercial backcountry recreation in British Columbia- Chapter 3: Birds, Biodiversity Branch, Ecosystem Planning and Standards Section: 1-42.
  • British Columbia Ministry of Water, L. a. A. P. (2002). Interim Wildlife Guidelines for Commercial Backcountry Recreation in British Columbia- Chapter 4: Mammals, Biodiversity Branch – Ecosystem Planning and Standards Section: 1-39.
  • British Columbia Ministry of Water, L. a. A. P. (2002). Interim Wildlife Guidelines for Commercial Backcountry Recreation in British Columbia- Chapter 6:SOurces of Human-Caused Disturbance: 1-9.
  • Brockelman, W. Y. and P. Dearden (1990). “The role of nature trekking in conservation: a case-study in Thailand.” Environmental Conservation 17(2): 141-148.
  • Brook, S. (2000). Traffic takes toll on wildlife. The Weekend Australian: 18.
  • Brooke, J. (1996). Yellowstone wolves get an ally in tourist trade. New York Times. New York.
  • Broyer, J. (1997). “La Dombes.” Le Courrier de la Nature 166: 1-14.
  • Buchanan, R. (1979). “Edge disturbance in natural areas.” Australian Parks and Recreation August 1979: 39-43.
  • Buckingham, S. (1999). Locating Koalas in the Australian Bush. Bolwarrah, VIC, Bolwarrah Press.
  • Buckley, R. (1999). Green Guide to White Water: Best-practice Environmental Management for Whitewater Raft and Kayak Tours. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
  • Buckley, R. (2000). Green Guide for 4wd Tours: Best Practice Environmental Management for 4wd and Off-road Tours. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
  • Buckley, R. (2000). Green Guide to Whale Watching: Best-practice Environmental Management for Boat-based Whale Watching Tours. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
  • Buckley, R. C. (2000). “Tourism in the Most Fragile Environments.” Tourism Recreation Research 25(1): 31-40.
  • Buckley, R. C. (2000). Tourism and Wilderness: Dancing with the Messy Monster. USDA Forest Service Conference 2000, Missoula, MT.
  • Buckley, R. C. (2001). Environmental Impacts. The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism. D. Weaver: 379-394.
  • Buckley, R. C. and M. Sommer (2001). Tourism and Protected Areas – Partnerships in Principle and Practice. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 37.
  • Buckley, R., Ed. (2003). Case Studies in Ecotourism. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing.
  • Budowski, G. (1976). “Tourism and Environmental Conservation: Conflict, Coexistence or Symbiosis.” Environmental Conservation 3(1): 27-31.
  • Bunnell, F. L., D. Dunbar, et al. (1981). “Effects of disturbance on the productivity and numbers of white pelicans in British Columbia: observations and models.” Colonial Waterbirds 4: 2-11.
  • Bureau of Land Management California (2003). Ultimate Wildlife Watching, Bureau of Land Management California: 1-2.
  • Burger, E. (1997). “Wildlife Feeding Report: Industrial Placement Report”, University of Queensland, Gatton Campus and the Department of Environment, Moggill, Qld.
  • Burger, J. (1981). “The effect of human activity on birds at a coastal bay.” Biological Conservation 21: 231-241.
  • Burger, J. (1998). “Effects of motorboats and personal watercraft on flight behaviour over a colony of common terns.” The Condor 100: 528-534.
  • Burger, J. and M. Gochfeld (1991). “Human distance and birds: tolerance and response distances of resident and migrant species in India.” Environmental Conservation 18: 158-165.
  • Burger, J. and M. Gochfeld (1993). “Tourism and short-term behavioural responses of nesting masked, red-footed, and blue-footed, boobies in the Galapagos.” Environmental Conservation 20(3): 255-259.
  • Burger, J., M. Gochfeld, et al. (1995). “Ecotourism and birds in coastal New Jersey: Contrasting responses of birds, tourists, and managers.” Environmental Conservation 22(1): 56-65.
  • Burnie, D. (1994). “Ecotourists to paradise.” New Scientist 142(1921): 23-24.
  • Burns, D. (1996). “Attitude towards Tourism Development.” Annals of Tourism Research 23(4): 935-938.
  • Burns, G. L. and T. Sofield. (2001). Host Community: social and cultural issues concerning wildlife tourism. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-49.
  • Burns, G., L., (2004). The Host Community and Wildlife Tourism- Chapter7. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 125-144.
  • Burns, G. L., Macbeth, J., and Moore, S. 2011 Should dingoes die? Principles for engaging ecocentric ethics in wildlife tourism management. Journal of Ecotourism, 10(3): 179-196.
  • Burton, F. (1997). “Can Ecotourism Objectives be Achieved?” Annals of Tourism Research 25(3): 755-758.
  • Busby, G. and S. Rendle (2000). “The transition from tourism on farms to farm tourism.” Tourism Management 21: 635-642.
  • Butynski, T. M. and J. Kalina (1998). Gorilla Tourism: A Critical Look. Conservation of Biological Resources. E. J. Milner-Gulland and R. Mace. Oxford, Blackwell Science.
  • Byrne, N. (1994). Carrying capacity for recreation. Proceedings of the ANZECC 6th Australasian Regional Seminar on National Parks and Wildlife Management, Australian Alps, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council , Canberra.
  • Cannon, C. E. (1984). “Movements of lorikeets with an artificially supplemented diet.” Australian Wildlife Research 11: 173-179.
  • Carlson, L. H. and P. J. Godfrey (1989). “Human impact management in a coastal recreation and natural area.” Biological Conservation 49: 141-156.
  • Carpenter, L. H., D. J. Decker, et al. (2000). “Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity in Wildlife Management.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 5: 5-19.
  • Carrillo, E. and C. Vaughan (1993). “Behavioural change in Procyon spp. (Carnivora: procyonidae) caused by tourist visitation in a Costa Rican wildlife area.” Revista De Biologia Tropical 41(3): 843-848.
  • Catlin, J. and Jones, R. (2010). “Whale shark tourism at Ningaloo Marine Park: A longitudinal study of wildlife tourism.” Tourism Management 31 (3): 386-394.
  • Catlin, J., Jones, R. and Jones, R. (2011). “Revisiting Duffus and Dearden’s wildlife tourism framework.” Biological Conservation 144 (5): 1537-1544
  • Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996). Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas. IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Venezuela.
  • Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1998). Birdwatching and Ecotourism. The Ecotourism Soceity Newsletter. First Quarter 1998: 1-3.
  • Chalip, L. and S. Fairley (2002). Positioning the Gold Coast in International Tourist Markets: Gold Coast Tourism Visioning Project 2.1 (Part 1). Gold Coast, QLD, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
  • Child, G. F. T. and R. A. Heath (1990). “Underselling national parks in Zimbabwe: the implications for rural sustainability.” Society and Natural Resources 3(3): 215-227.
  • Chirgwin, S. (?). Jumping crocodile cruises – are they sustainable? Darwin, Northern Territory University.
  • Chirgwin, S. and K. Hughes (1997). “Ecotourism: The participants’ perceptions.” The Journal of Tourism Studies 8(2): 2-7.
  • Clark, R. N. and G. H. Stankey (1979). The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: A Framework for Planning, Management, and Research, US Dept of Agriculture, Forest Service.
  • Clayton, C. and R. Mendelsohn (1993). “The value of watchable wildlife: A case study of McNeil River.” Journal of Environmental Management 39(2): 101-106.
  • Coastcare (2002). Minimal Impact Sea Kayaking (MISK)- A code of conduct for sea kayakers visiting sensitive coastal environments in Tasmania, Coastcare: 1-27.
  • Cochrane, J. (1993). Tourism and conservation in Indonesia and Malaysia. Tourism in South East Asia. M. Hitchcock, King, V.T., Parnwell, M.J.G., King, V.T., Parnwell, M.J.G. London, UK, Routledge: 317-326.
  • Coglan, A., Fox, K.R., Prideaux, B. and Luck, M. (2009). “Successful interpretation in Great Barrier Reef Tourism: dive in or keep out of it?” Proceedings of CMT2009, the 6th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism June, 2009, Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa: 47-60
  • Cole, D. N. (1992). “Modelling wilderness campsites: factors that influence amount of impact.” Environmental Management 16(2): 255-264.
  • Cole, D. N., M. E. Petersen, et al. (1987). Managing Wilderness Recreation Use: Common Problems and Potential Solutions. Ogden, UTAH, US Dept of Agriculture – Forest Service: 1-5.
  • Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) (1999). The development of Sustainable Tourism in Natural Areas in North America: Background, Issues and Opportunities, Mexico.
  • Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). (1999). Sustainable Tourism in Natural Areas (unpublished). Montreal: 70-97.
  • Commission, P. (2001). Productivity Commission Submission to the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service: Submission on Native Wildlife Review.
  • Conover, M. (1999). “Can waterfowl be taught to avoid food handouts through conditioned food aversions?” Wildlife Society Bulletin 7(1): 160-166.
  • Conway, W. (1995). “Wild and zoo animal interactive management and habitat conservation.” Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 573-594.
  • Conway, W. (1999). The Changing role of Zoos in the 21st Century. Annual Conference of the World Zoo Organization, Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Cook, E. (1999). Being a Zoo Designer: achievements and challenges. The Human Factor in interpretation: Interpretation Australia Association National Conference, Hobart, Interpretation Australia Association.
  • Cooke, A. S. (1990). “Observations on how close certain passerine species will tolerate an approaching human in rural and suburban areas.” Biological Conservation 18: 85-88.
  • Cooper, M. E. (2003). “Zoo legislation.” International Zoo Yearbook 38: 81-93.
  • Cordell, H. K. and N. G. Herbert (2002). “The popularity of birding is still growing.” Birding 34: 54-59.
  • Cordell, H. K., J. C. Bergstrom, et al. (1990). An Analysis of the Outdoor Recreation and Wilderness Situation in the United States: 1989-2040, USDA Forest Service.
  • Cornell, D. and J. E. Cornely (1979). “Aversive conditioning of campground coyotes in Joshua Tree National Monument.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 7(2): 129-131.
  • Cosgriff, K. (1997). Wildlife Tourism in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Charles Sturt University, Charles Sturt University.
  • Cott, M. B. (1969). “Tourists and crocodiles in Uganda.” Oryx 10: 153-160.
  • Cowan, V., K. Whipple, et al. (1998). “From Meerkats to Mickey – Interpreting with Live Animals.” National Association for Interpretation: 183-185.
  • Crabtree, A. E. and R. S. Black (2000). EcoGuide Program Guide Workbook. Brisbane, Ecotourism Association of Australia,: 1-58.
  • CRC Reef Research Centre (2003). Marine Turtle Conservation, CRC Reef Research Centre: 1-2.
  • CRC for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management (1997). Possums under the spotlight. Townsville, Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management: 1-2.
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