Wildlife Tourism Research Literature

A bibliography of wildlife tourism related references from Australia and internationally.

If you know of any we’ve missed please let us know.

This is a long list! We are planning a searchable database.  Meantime, you can do a simple ‘find’ within the page to search the following keywords

  • attitudes (includes values, human behavioural change, visitor satisfaction)
  • birds(includes birding, birdwatching)
  • conservation
  • economics (economics of wildlife tourism or ecotourisn
  • hunting (includes fishing)
  • interpretation (includes nature education, environmental education, guiding, signage etc.)
  • mammals
  • management (conservation management, management of visitors, guidelines)
  • marine (whales, turtles, coral reef etc.)
  • monitoring
  • negative impacts
  • positive impacts
  • captive wildlife
  • guidelines (reports, recommendations)

Publications (articles, chapter and books relevant to wildlife tourism)

  • A brief consideration of nature of wildlife tourism / David Newsome — Planning and development of wildlife tourism in B. (n.d.).
    ABC Online. (2004). “The World Today Archive. “Whale-watching report.” [marine, mammals]
    Abdulbaki B, Wojciech J F, Jonathan Y,et al. (2008). “Estimating fishing and hunting leisure spending shares in the United States” [J]. Tourism Management 29(4):771-782. [hunting]
    Abdullah, N. C., & Shah, R. M. (2018). States’ Wildlife Tourism Policy Prepares Tourists for Sustainability of Antarctica Tourism? Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal (E-BPJ), 3(7), 191–196. https://doi.org/10.21834/e-bpj.v3i7.1311
    ABTA (2015) Global Welfare Guidance for Animals in Tourism ABTA, UK
    Acero, J. M. and Aguirre, C. A. (1994). “A monitoring research plan for tourism in Antarctica.” Annals of Tourism Research 21(2): 295-302. [monitoring]
    Adamic, M. (1997). “The analysis of key sources of mortality of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Slovenia in the last 6 years period (1.4.1991-31.3.1997).” Zbornik gozdarstvza in lesarstva 53: 5-28. [negative impacts, mammals]
    Adams, C. E., J. A. Leifester, et al. (1997). “Understanding wildlife consituents: birders and waterfowl hunters.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(3): 653-660. [birds, hunting]
    Adams, W. M. and M. Infield (2003). “Who is on the Gorilla’s Payroll? Claims on Tourist Revenue From a Ugandan National Park.” World Development 31(1): 177-190. [mammals, economics]
    Adamski, P., & Ciapała, S. (2016). Wildlife Tourism, Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism – Problems with Classification. Folia Turistica, 40, 9–26. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0010.4016
    Agents: Regulate Wildlife Tourism. (2016). Travel Talk-India.
    Aguirre, A. A. (2009). Essential veterinary education in zoological and wildlife medicine: a global perspective. Revue Scientifique et Technique – Office Interational Des Epizooties, 28, 606–10.
    Agustin, H., Supriadi, D., & Hidayat, D. R. (2018a). Digital Marketing in Unsustainable Wildlife Tourism (A Study on the Practice of Marketing Communication of Sea Turtles Observation Tourism). Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1114, 12126. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1114/1/012126
    Agustin, H., Supriadi, D., & Hidayat, D. R. (2018b). Retraction: Digital Marketing in Unsustainable Wildlife Tourism (A Study on the Practice of Marketing Communication of Sea Turtles Observation Tourism) (J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1114 012126). Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1114, 12171. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1114/1/012171
    Ahlund, M. and F. Gotmark (1989). “Gull predation on eider ducklings Somateria mollissima: effects of human disturbance.” Biological Conservation 48: 115-117. [negative impacts]
    Aiello, R. L., A. Cammick, et al. (1999). Breaking the “Rules”: Life within the Marine Tourism Industry. Interpretation Australia Association National Conference: The Human Factor in Interpretation, Hobart, Interpretation Australian Association. [marine, interpretation]
    Aihara, Y., Hosaka, T., Yasuda, M., & Hashim, M. (2016). Mammalian Wildlife tourism in South-East Asian tropical rainforests: The case of Endau Rompin national Park, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 28(2), 167–181.
    Akama, J. S. (1996). “Western environmental values and nature-based tourism in Kenya.” Tourism Management 17(8): 567-574. [attitudes, management]
    Akama, J. S. and D. M. Kieti (2003). “Measuring tourist satisfaction with Kenya’s wildlife safari: a case study of Tsavo West National Park.” Tourism Management 24: 73-81. [attitudes]
    Akama, J. S. and K. I. Ondimu (2001). “Tourism product development and the changing consumer demand: A case study of Kenya.” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 6(1): 56-62. [attitudes, management]
    Akama, J. S., Maingi, S., & Camargo, B. A. (2011). Wildlife conservation, safari tourism and the role of tourism certification in Kenya: A postcolonial critique. Tourism Recreation Research, 36(3), 281–291.
    Alaska Department of Game and Fish (2000). Wildlife Viewing Guidelines. Kodiak, Kodiak Organisation: 1-2. [management, negative impacts]
    Alcock, D. (1991). “Education and extension: management’s best strategy.” Australian Parks and Recreation 27: 15-17. [interpretation, management]
    Alder, J. and M. Haste (1995). The Cod Hole: a case study in adaptive management. Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology. O. Bellwood, H. Choat and N. Saxena. Townsville, Queensland, James Cook University: 427-436. [management]
    Alderman, C. L. (1994). “The Economics and the Role of Privately-owned Lands, Used for Nature Tourism, Education, and Conservation.” Protected Area Economics and Policy: 273-317. [economics]
    Ali, A. H. M., Afandi, S. H. bin M., Emmy, P. J., & Shuib, A. (2018). Assessment of non consumptive wildlife oriented tourism in Sukau, Sabah using travel cost method. International Journal of Business and Society, 19(1), 47–55.
    Allen, S. (1997). Dominance interactions between provisioned bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Moreton Bay, Australia. Dept of Geographical Sciences and Planning and School of Marine Science. Brisbane, University of Queensland: 2. [marine mammals]
    Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums (2003). Wildlife Observation, California Coastal Commission: 1-3. [marine mammals]
    Allworth, A., Murray, K., & Morgan, J. (1996). A human case of encephalitis due to a lyssavirus recently identified in fruit bats. Communicable diseases intelligence, 20, 504–04.
    Almli, L., Burghardt, G. (2006). Environmental enrichment alters the behavioral profile of ratsnakes (Elaphe). J. Applied Animal Welfare Science 9: 85-109. [management, zoo]
    Amante-Helwig, V. (1996). “Ecotourists’ beliefs and knowledge about dolphins and the development of cetacean ecotourism.” Aquatic Mammals 22(2): 131-140. [attitudes, marine mammals]
    American Birding Association (2003). American Birding Association’s Principles of Birding Ethics, American Birding Association: 1-3. [birdwatching, guidelines]
    American Society of Travel Agents (2001). Ten Commandments on Ecotourism, American Society of Travel Agents. [guidelines]
    Ames, P. L. and G. S. Mersereau (1964). “Some factors in the decline of the osprey in Connecticut.” The Auk 81: 173-185. [birds, negative impacts]
    Analysis of wildlife tourism experiences with endangered species. (2014). Tourism Management, 40, 300–310.
    Andersen, S. M., Teilmann, J., Dietz, R., & Schmidt, N. M. (2012). Behavioural responses of harbour seals to human‐induced disturbances. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 22(1), 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.1244
    Anderson, D. W. and J. O. Keith (1980). “The human influence on seabird nesting success: conservation implications.” Biological Conservation 18: 65-80. [birds, negative impacts]
    Anderson, K. (1995). “Culture and Nature at the Adelaide zoo: at the frontiers of human geography”. Transactions of the British Geographers 20: 275–294. [management, zoo]
    Anderson, K. (1998) “Animals, science, and spectacle in the city.” In J. R. Wolch, & J. Emel (eds.), Animal geographies. place, politics and identity in the nature-culture borderlands. London: Verso. 25-50.
    Anderson, R., J. D. C. Linnell, et al. (1996). “Short term behavioural and physiological response of moose Alces alces to military disturbance in Norway.” Biological Conservation 77: 169-176. [mammals, negative impacts]
    Andersson, P., Croné, S., Stage, J., & Stage, J. (2005a). Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 21(1), 1.
    Andersson, P., Croné, S., Stage, J., & Stage, J. (2005b). Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism: An example from Uganda’s gorilla tourism. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 21(1), 1–18.
    Angeloni L., Crooks K.R., and Blumstein D.T. (2010) Conservation and Behavior: Introduction. In: Breed M.D. and Moore J., (eds.) Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, volume 1, pp. 377-381. Oxford: Academic Press. [conservation]
    Anon (?). Code of Behaviour – For guides and tour leaders who bring people into the Penneshaw Penguin Colony: 1-2. [birds, management]
    Anon (?). Evaluating Destination Image: Reducing the Scale to Managed Visitor Attractions: 40. [ attitudes, management]
    Anon (1989). Wildlife Watching: Paradise for nature lovers. Australia: The Australian Tourism Commission Newsletter, Australian Tourism Commission. Spring: 8-9.
    Anon (1990). Approaches to local participation: The African Experience. Ecotourism and Resource Conservation: A collection of papers. J. Kusler. [management, local community]
    Anon (1992). Bear Facts – The Essentials for Travelling in Bear Country. [mammals, guidelines]
    Anon (1997). Antarctica a travel hot spot. Weekend Australian: 7.[Antarctica, travel advice]
    Anon (2000). Bare’s fine as Vic joins the Bondi babes. The Sydney Morning Herald: 24.
    Anon (2003). NGO’s as Conservation Agents. Marine Ecotourism Issues and Experiences. B. Garrod, Wilson, J.C. Church Point, Channel View Publications: 108-121. [marine, conservation]
    Anon (2004). Artificial glow-worm cave gets green light to open. The Shire News: 1. [management]
    Anon. (2015). The Animal Welfare Act. Ministry of Primary Industries. New Zealand Government. Wellington, New: Zealand.
    ANZECC (1998). ANZECC Humpback Whale Research and Conservation Seminar, Brisbane 1998, QLD Dept of Environment and Heritage. [marine, conservation]
    Ap, J. and J. Crompton (1998). “Developing and Testing a Tourism Impact Scale.” Travel Research 37(2): 120-130. [attitudes, management]
    Appleby, M., Sandøe, P. (2002). Philosophical debate on the nature of well-being: implications for animal welfare. ‎Anim. Welf. 11: 283-294. [attitudes]
    Apps, K., Dimmock, K., Lloyd, D., & Huveneers, C. (2016). In the Water with White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias): Participants’ Beliefs toward Cage-diving in Australia. ANTHROZOOS, 29(2), 231–245. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927936.2016.1152714
    Arbieu, U., Grünewald, C., Martín-López, B., & Schleuning, M. (2018). Large mammal diversity matters for wildlife tourism in Southern African Protected Areas: Insights for management. Ecosystem Services, 31, 481–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.006
    Arbieu, U., Grünewald, C., Schleuning, M., & Böhning-Gaese, K. (2017). The importance of vegetation density for tourists’ wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction in African savannah ecosystems. PloS One, 12(9), e0185793. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185793
    Arbuckle, K. (2013). Folklore husbandry and a philosophical model for the design of captive management regimes. Herpetol. Rev. 44: 448-452. [attitudes,management]
    Aretino, B., Holland, P., Peterson, D., Schuele, M. (2001). Creating Markets for Biodiversity: A case study of Earth Sanctuaries Ltd. Productivity Commission Staff Research Paper. Canberra, ACT. [economics, management, Australian wildlife]
    Arita, H. T. (1996). “The conservation of cave-roosting bats in Yucatan, Mexico.” Biological Conservation 76(2): 177-185. [mammals, conservation]
    Ariya, G., Sitati, N., & Wishitemi, B. (2017). Tourists’ perceived value of wildlife tourism product at Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 8(2), 147–156. https://doi.org/10.1515/ejthr-2017-0014
    Arluke, A. and C. R. Sanders (1996). Regarding Animals. Philadelphia, Temple University Press.
    Armsden, A. (1997). “Captive Audiences.” Geographical 69(11): 6-7.
    Aryal, A., Morley, C. G., Cowan, P., & Ji, W. (2016). Conservation trophy hunting: Implications of contrasting approaches in native and introduced-range countries. Biodiversity, 17(4), 179–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2016.1263974
    Ashley, C. (2000). The impacts of tourism on rural livelihoods: Namibia’s experience. Overseas Development Institute London.
    Ashley, C., & Roe, D. (1998). Enhancing community involvement in wildlife tourism: issues and challenges (Vol. 11). International Institute for Environment and Development, London. [positive impact]
    Ashley, P. (2007). Fish welfare: current issues in aquaculture. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 104: 199-235. [management]
    Aslin, H. J. and D. H. Bennett (1999). Wildlife and world views: Australian attitudes to wildlife. International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Brisbane. [tourist attitudes]
    Au, W. W. L. and M. Green (2000). “Acoustic interaction of humpback whales and whale-watching boats.” Marine Environmental Research 49: 469-481. [marine, mammals, negative impacts]
    Augustine, S., Dearden, P., & Rollins, R. (2016). Are changing diver characteristics important for coral reef conservation? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 26(4), 660–673. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2574
    Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA) (?). ARAZPA – Code of Practice, Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA): 1-12. [guidelines, captive wildlife]
    Australian Alps National Parks (?). River Users Code, Australian Alps National Parks. [guidelines]
    Australian Alps National Parks (1993). Car-based Camping Code, Australian Alps National Parks. [guidelines]
    Australian Alps National Parks (1993). Snow Camping Code, Australian Alps National Parks. [guidelines]
    Australian Alps National Parks (1994). Horse Riding Code, Australian Alps National Parks.[guidelines]
    Australian Alps National Parks (1997). Bushwalking Code, Australian Alps National Parks.[guidelines]
    Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) (1997). Guide to environmental legislation in Australia and New Zealand. Canberra, Dept of Environment, Sports and Territories. [legislation]
    Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) (2000). Australian National Guidelines for Cetacean Observation and Areas of Special Interest for Cetacean Observation. Environment Australia: 1-20. [guidelines, marine mammals]
    Australian Wildlife Tourism Conference. (2006). Getting real about wildlife tourism : Conference program. Canning Bridge, W.A.: Promaco Conventions.
    Aveling, C. and R. Aveling (1989). “Gorilla conservation in Zaire.” Oryx 23(2): 64-70. [mammals, conservation]
    Avey, M., Rodriguez, A., Sturdy, C. (2011). Seasonal variation of vocal behaviour in a temperate songbird: Assessing the effects of laboratory housing on wild-caught, seasonally breeding birds. Behav. Process. 88: 177-183. [management, captive wildlife]
    Avila-Foucat, Véronique Sophie, & Rodríguez-Robayo, K. J. (2018). Determinants of livelihood diversification: The case wildlife tourism in four coastal communities in Oaxaca, Mexico. Tourism Management, 69, 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.021
    Avila-Foucat, Veronique Sophie, Gendron, D., Revollo-Fernandez, D., & Popoca, E. I. (2017). Determinants of the potential demand for whale watching in Loreto Bay National Park. Marine Policy, 81, 37–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.03.006
    Avila-Foucat, Véronique Sophie. (2018). Determinants of livelihood diversification. Tourism Management, 69, 223–231.
    AVMA, A. (n.d.). Guidelines for the Euthanasia of AnimalsAmerican veterinary Medical Association (2013th ed.). USA.
    Bach, L., & Burton, M. (2017). Proximity and animal welfare in the context of tourist interactions with habituated dolphins. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 25(2), 181–197. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2016.1195835
    Baird, B. A., Kuhar, C. W., Lukas, K. E., Amendolagine, L. A., Fuller, G. A., Nemet, J., … & Schook, M. W. (2016). Program animal welfare: Using behavioral and physiological measures to assess the well-being of animals used for education programs in zoos. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 176, 150-162. [management, captive wildlife]
    Baker, J. E. (1997). “Trophy hunting as a sustainable use of wildlife resources in southern and eastern Africa.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(4): 306-321. [hunting, management]
    Ballantyne, R. and Packer, J. (2005). Promoting environmentally sustainable attitudes and behaviour through free-choice learning experiences: What’s the state of the game?, Environmental Education Research, 11 (3), 281-295. [attitudes, interpretation, conservation]
    Ballantyne, R. and Packer, J. (in press). Using tourism free-choice learning experiences to promote environmentally sustainable behaviour: the role of post-visit ‘action resources’. Environmental Education Research. [tourist attitudes, interpretation]
    Ballantyne, R., & Packer, J. (2011). Using tourism free-choice learning experiences to promote environmentally sustainable behaviour: The role of post-visit “action resources.” Environmental Education Research, 17(2), 201–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2010.530645
    Ballantyne, R., J. Packer, et al. (1998). “Targeted Interpretation: Exploring relationships among visitors’ motivations, actitivies, attitudes, information needs and preferences.” Journal of Tourism Studies 9(2): 14-25. [tourist attitudes]
    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. & Hughes, K. (2009). Tourists’ support for conservation messages and sustainable management practices in wildlife tourism experiences. Tourism Management, 30, 658-664. [tourist attitudes, conservation]
    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. and Falk, J. (2011). “Visitors’ learning for environmental sustainability: Testing short and long term impacts of wildlife tourism experiences using structural equation modelling.” Tourism Management 32 (6): 1243-1252. [tourist attitudes]
    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. and Sutherland, L. (2011). “Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences.” Tourism Management 32 (4): 770-779. [tourist attitudes, interpretation]
    “Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Falk, J. (2011). Visitors’ learning for environmental sustainability: Testing short-and long-term impacts of wildlife tourism experiences using structural equation modelling. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1243-1252. [management, monitoring]

    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Falk, J. (2011). Visitors’ learning for environmental sustainability. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1243–1252.
    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Hughes, K. (2008). Environmental awareness, interests and motives of botanic gardens visitors: Implications for interpretive practice. Tourism Management, 29(3), 439–444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.05.006
    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Hughes, K. (2009). Tourists’ support for conservation messages and sustainable management practices in wildlife tourism experiences. Tourism Management, 30(5), 658–664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2008.11.003
    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Sutherland, L. A. (2011). Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences. Tourism management, 32(4), 770-779. [management, attitudes, interpretation]
    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Sutherland, L. A. (2011). Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism. Tourism Management, 32(4), 770–779.
    “Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., Hughes, K., & Dierking, L. (2007). Conservation learning in wildlife tourism settings: Lessons from research in zoos and aquariums. Environmental Education Research, 13(3), 367-383. [conservation, interpretation, captive wildlife]

    Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., Hughes, K., and Dierking, L. (2007). Conservation learning in wildlife tourism settings: lessons from research in zoos and aquariums. Environmental Education Research, 13 (3), 367-383. [tourist attitudes, interpretation, captive wildlife]
    Ballen, C., Shine, R., & Olsson, M. (2014). Effects of early social isolation on the behaviour and performance of juvenile lizards, Chamaeleo calyptratus. Animal Behaviour, 88, 1-6. [management, captive wildlife]
    Banerjee, A. (2012). Is wildlife tourism benefiting Indian protected areas? A survey. CURRENT ISSUES IN TOURISM, 15(3), 211–227. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2011.599367
    Baral, A. (2013). Impacts of wildlife tourism on poaching of Greater One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Lincoln University.
    Barany, M. E., A. L. Hammett, et al. (2001). “The Role of Private Wildlife Reserves in Nicaragua’s Emerging Ecotourism Industry.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9(2): 95-110. [conservation, economics]
    Baratay, E., & Hardouin-Fugier, E. (2004). Zoo: A history of zoological gardens in the West. Reaktion books. [management, captive wildlife]
    Barnes, F. W. (1994). Chapter 17: Sustainable Development in African Game Parks. Principles of Conservation Biology. G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll. Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates, Inc.: 504-511. [conservation, economics]
    Barnes, J., J. Burgess, et al. (1992). Chapter 6: Wildlife Tourism. Economics for the Wilds: wildlands, diversity and development. T. M. Swanson and E. B. Barbier. London, Earthscan Publications: 136-150. [conservation, economics]
    Barnett, A., Payne, N. L., Semmens, J. M., & Fitzpatrick, R. (2016). Ecotourism increases the field metabolic rate of whitetip reef sharks. Biological Conservation, 199, 132–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.05.009
    Barrows, P. L. (2004). Professional, ethical and legal dilemmas of trap-neuter-release. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225, 1365–9.
    Barter, M., Newsome, D. and Calver, M. (2008) Preliminary quantitative data on behavioural responses of Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) to human approach on Penguin Island, Western Australia, Journal of Ecotourism 7 (2&3): 192-212. [negative impacts]
    Bashaw, M. J., Kelling, A. S., Bloomsmith, M. A., & Maple, T. L. (2007). Environmental Effects on the Behavior of Zoo-housed Lions and Tigers, with a Case Study of the Effects of a Visual Barrier on Pacing. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 10(2), 95-109. [mammals, management, captive wildlife]
    Bashaw, M. J., Tarou, L. R., Maki, T. S., & Maple, T. L. (2001). A survey assessment of variables related to stereotypy in captive giraffe and okapi. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 73(3), 235-247. [management, mammals, captive wildlife]
    Bateson, P., Nyman, S., Sheppard, D. (1989) National parks & tourism: proceedings of a seminar held in Sydney 6 May 1988, N.S.W. National Parks and Wildlife Service [with the] Royal Australian Institute of Parks and Recreation (NSW Region), Hurstville, N.S.W.
    Batten, L. A. (1977). “Sailing on reservoirs and its effects on water birds.” Biological Conservation 11: 49-58. [negative impacts]
    Batten, P. and D. Stancil (1976). Living Trophies. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company. [hunting, conservation]
    Bauer, J. J. and K. M. Cosgriff (2001). Hunting, multi-cultural society and environmental change in Australia. Veterinary Conservation Biology Conference, Sydney. [hunting]
    Bauer, J., Herr, A., (2004). Hunting and Fishing Tourism -Chapter 4. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 57-77. [hunting, management]
    Baxter, E., & Plowman, A. B. (2001). The effect of increasing dietary fibre on feeding, rumination and oral stereotypies in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Animal Welfare, 10(3), 281-290. [management, mammals]
    Bayless, D. S., J. C. Bergstrom, et al. (1994). “Assessing the demand for designated wildlife viewing sites.” Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing 2(3): 75-93. [tourist attitudes]
    Bayma, T. (2012). Rational myth making and environment shaping: The transformation of the zoo. The Sociological Quarterly, 53(1), 116-141. [management, captive wildlife]
    Beaumont, N. (1997). Perceived crowding as as evaluative standard for determining social carrying capacity in tourist recreation areas: The case of Green Island, North Queensland. Tourism planning and policy in Australia and New Zealand: Cases, issues and practice. C. M. Hall, J. Jenkins and G. Kearsley. Sydney, Irwin Publishers. [hunting]
    Beausoleil, N. J. (2014). Balancing the need for conservation and the welfare of individual animals. In M. Appleby, P. Sandoe, & D. M. Weary (Eds.), Dilemmas in Animal Welfare (pp. 124–47). CABI Publishing UK.
    Beaver, A. (2012). A dictionary of travel and tourism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Beckman, E. A. (1987). “Interpretation in Australia – Current Status and Future Prospects.” Australian Parks and Recreation 23: 6-14. [interpretation]
    Beckman, E. A. (1992). Environmental interpretation for education and management in Australian national parks and other protected areas, University of new England. [interpretation, management]
    Beckman, E. A. (2001). ‘Be Dingo Smart’ – Managing Visitors to Manage Dingoes. IAA Conference. [interpretation, management]
    Beeton, S. (2004). Business Issues in Wildlife Tourism – Chapter 10. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 187-209. [economics, management]
    Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H., & Gales, N. (2006). Decline in Relative Abundance of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Long-Term Disturbance. Conservation Biology, 20(6), 1791–1798.
    Bekoff, M., & Ram, D. (2014). Cruel to be kind? New: Scientist.
    Belicia, T. X. Y., & Islam, M. S. (2018). Towards a Decommodified Wildlife Tourism: Why Market Environmentalism Is Not Enough for Conservation. Societies, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030059
    Bell, D. V. and L. W. Austin (1985). “The game-fishing season and its effects on overwintering wildfowl.” Biological Conservation 33: 65-80. [hunting]
    Benckendorff, P. and Lund-Durlacher, D. (eds) 2013. International cases in sustainable travel & tourism, Goodfellow Publishers, Oxford. [positive impacts]
    Benson, D. E. (1987). Section B-7: Wildlife utilization on private land in South Africa with implications for the United States. Valuing Wildlife: Economic and Social Perspectives. D. D. Decker and G. R. Goff. London, Westview Press: 376-381. [economics]
    Benson, D. E. (2001). “Wildlife and Recreation Management on Private Lands in the United States.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1): 359-371. [management]
    Bentz, J. H. (2015). Optimal strategies for marine wildlife tourism in small islands. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
    Bentz, J., Dearden, P., & Calado, H. (2013). Strategies for marine wildlife tourism in small islands – the case of the Azores. JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH, 874–879. https://doi.org/10.2112/SI65-148.1
    Bentz, Julia, Dearden, P., & Calado, H. (2013a). Strategies for marine wildlife tourism in small islands – The case of the Azores. Journal of Coastal Research, (65), 874–879. https://doi.org/10.2112/SI65-148
    Bentz, Julia, Dearden, P., & Calado, H. (2013b). Strategies for marine wildlife tourism in small islands–the case of the Azores. Journal of Coastal Research, 65(sp1), 874–880.
    Bentz, Julia, Lopes, F., Calado, H., & Dearden, P. (2016). Enhancing satisfaction and sustainable management: Whale watching in the Azores. Tourism Management, 54, 465–476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.11.016
    Bentz, Julia, Rodrigues, A., Dearden, P., & Calado, H. (2015). Crowding in marine environments: Divers and whale watchers in the Azores. Ocean and Coastal Management, 109, 77–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.03.001
    Bentz, Julia. (2016). Managing marine wildlife tourism activities. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 74–83.
    Bergeron, R., Badnell-Waters, A., Lambton, S., Mason, G. (2008). Stereotypic oral behaviour in captive ungulates: foraging, diet and gastrointestinal function. In: Mason, G., Rushen, J., (Ed.), Stereotypic animal behaviour: fundamentals and applications to welfare. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 19-57. [captive wildlife]
    Berris, M. (2001). Neo Notes No.2: Guiding Protocols for dealing with groups on Seal Bay Beach. Seal Bay Conservation Park, SA NPW. [guidelines, marine mammals]
    Berrow, S. D. (2003). Chapter 4: An Assessment of the Framework, Legislation and Monitoring Required to Develop Genuinely Sustainable Whalewatching. Marine Ecotourism Issues and Experiences. B. Garrod, Wilson, J.C. Church Point, Channel View Publications: 66, 73-75. [marine mammals, management, legislation]
    Bertella, G. (2011). Wildlife Tourism and Natural Sciences Knowledge: Challenges and Critical Factors. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(1), 97-114
    Bertella, G. (2011). Wildlife tourism and natural sciences knowledge: Challenges and critical factors. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(1), 97–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2011.540794
    Bertella, G. (2018). Sustainability in wildlife tourism: Challenging the assumptions and imagining alternatives. Tourism Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-11-2017-0166
    Bertella, G., & Acquarone, M. (2018). Reply to “Swim encounters with Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) off Northern Norway: Interactive behaviours directed towards Human Divers and Snorkellers obtained from opportunistic underwater video recordings.” Journal of Ecotourism, 17(2), 184. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2017.1368272
    Bertella, G., Fumagalli, M., & Williams-Grey, V. (2019). Wildlife tourism through the co-creation lens. Tourism Recreation Research, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2019.1606977
    Bertrand, J.-M. (1997). Wildlife tourism in Africa.
    Berwick, S. H. and V. B. Sahara (1995). The Development of International Principles and Practices of Wildlife Research and Management: Asian and American Approaches. Delhi, Oxford University Press: 295-323. [management,]
    Berwick, S. H., & Saharia, V. B. (1995). Development of international principles and practices of wildlife research and management. Oxford University Press.
    Bhuiyan, M., Siwar, C., Ismail, S.M. et al (2011). “The role of home stay for ecotourism development in East Coast Economic Region.” American Journal of Applied Sciences 8 (6): 540-54 [economics]
    Big Volcano (2001). Code of Practice for Ecotourism Operators, Big Volcano,: 1-2. [guidelines]
    Biggs D, Turpie J., Fabriclus C, Spenceley A. The value of avitourism for conservation and job creation – An analysis from South Africa. Conservat Soc [serial online] 2011 [cited 2013 Feb 24]; 9:80-90. Available from www.conservationandsociety.org/text.asp?2011/9/1/80/79198 [economics]
    Bindra, P., & Karanth, K. K. (2013). Tourism turf wars: Debating the benefits and costs of wildlife tourism in India. ORYX, 47(1), 15–16. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313000161
    Biolatti, C., Modesto, P., Dezzutto, D., Pera, F., Tarantola, M., Gennero, M., … & Acutis, P. (2016). Behavioural analysis of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) under different zoo managements. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci, 174, 173-180. [captive wildlife]
    BirdLife International, (2013). Buceros bicornis, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ver 3.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org Accessed December 11th, 2015.
    Birds Australia (1999). Guidelines on Recreational Bird Watching: Information Sheet No.9. Hawthorn, Victoria, Birds Australia: 1-4. [guidelines, birdwatching]
    Birds Australia (2002). Bird Hides for Birders and Builders-Information Sheet No.8. Hawthorn East, Bird Australia: 1-2.
    Birds Australia (2002). Sharing our Beaches with Birds. Hawthorn East, Birds Australia: 1-2.
    Birenboim, A., Reinau, K. H., Shoval, N., & Harder, H. (2015). High-resolution measurement and analysis of visitor experiences in time and space: The case of Aalborg zoo in Denmark. The Professional Geographer, 67(4), 620-629. [captive wildlife, attitudes]
    Birkett, L., Newton-Fisher, N. (2010). Recognising psychological abnormality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using human psychiatric principles. Animals, Research, and Alternatives: PCRM conference, The Physician’s Committee, Washington DC, USA. [captive wildlife]
    Birkhead, T. (2012). Bird Sense. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.
    Birtles, A. (2002). Information for dwarf minke whale interactions in the great barrier reef world heritage area- Code of Practice for dwarf minke whale-human interactions, CRC Reef Research Centre: 1-5.
    Birtles, A., M. Cuthill, et al. (1996). Incorporating Research on Visitor Experiences into Ecologically Sustainable Management of Whale Shark Tourism. Ecotourism and Nature-Based Tourism: Taking the next steps. Ecotourism Association of Australia. H. Richins, J. Richardson and A. Crabtree. Brisbane, Ecotourism Association of Australia: 195-202.
    Birtles, A., P. Valentine, et al. (2001). Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife: Opportunities and responsibilities. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia. Gold Coast, Queensland, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Birtles, A., Valentine, P., & Curnock, M. (2001a). Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Birtles, A., Valentine, P., & Curnock, M. (2001b). Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife: Opportunities and responsibilities. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Bishop, A., Pomeroy, P., & Twiss, S. D. (2015). Breeding male grey seals exhibit similar activity budgets across varying exposures to human activity. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 527, 247–259. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps11254
    Bitgood, S., A. Benefield, et al. (1986). Understanding Your Visitors: Ten Factors that Influence Their Behaviour. Jacksonville, Centre for Social Design – Jacksonville State University: 17.
    Bitgood, S., A. Benefield, et al. (1988). “Exhibit Design and Visitor Behaviour: Empirical Relationships.” Environment and Behaviour 20(4): 474-491.
    Black, R & Crabtree, A (ed) 2007 Quality Assurance and Certification in Ecotourism, Ecotourism Series No 5, CABI Publishing UK.
    Black, R, Crabtree, A. ed. (2007). Quality Assurance and Certification in Ecotourism, Ecotourism Series No 5, CABI Publishing UK
    Blakesley, J. A. and K. P. Reese (1988). “Avian use of campground and noncampground sites in riparian zones.” Wildlife Management 52(3): 399-402.
    Blamey, R. (1995). The Nature of Ecotourism. Canberra, BTR: 132-139.
    Blaney, E., Wells, D. (2004). The influence of a camouflage net barrier on the behaviour, welfare and public perceptions of zoo-housed gorillas. ‎Anim. Welf. 13, 111-118. [captive wildlife, attitudes]
    Blangy, S., J. Genot, et al. (1992). “Ecotourism in Berezinsky: Opportunties and Constraints.” Ecodecision Leisure and Environment 20(Spring): 61-65. [conservation]
    Blokhuis, H. (1986). Feather-pecking in poultry: Its relation with ground-pecking. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 16, 63-67. [captive wildlife]
    Blondel J. (2004). Birding in the sky: Only fun, a chance for eco-development or both [EB/OL]. Available: egis.cafe.crampon. 2008 – 07 Clevedon : Channel View Publications. 2.
    Boer, D. (2016). Success factors for community business wildlife tourism partnerships in Tanzania. The European Journal of Development Research, 28(4), 555–570.
    Boissy, A., Manteuffel, G., Jensen, M., Moe, R., Spruijt, B., Keeling, L., Winckler, C., Forkman, B., Dimitrov, I., Langbein, J., Bakken, M., Veissier, I., Aubert, A. (2007). Assessment of positive emotions in animals to improve their welfare. Physiology & behavior, 92(3), 375-397. [captive wildlife]
    Bolon E G, Robinson W. (2003). Wildlife Ecology and Management (the 5th edition) [M]. New Jersey: Prentice Hall International. [management]
    Bookhout T A. (1996). Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats [M]. Bethesda: The Wildlife Society, 106 -110. [management]
    Borges de Lima, I. & Green, R. J. (eds) (2017), Wildlife tourism, environmental learning and ethical encounters: ecological and conservation aspects, Springer, Switzerland.
    Bostock, S., C. (1993). Zoos and Animal Rights. The ethics of keeping animals. New York: Routledge. [captive wildlife]
    Boswell, J. (1982). “Hunter’s guide to Australian game anatomy: Grey kangaroo.” Australian Shooter’s Journal(May): 52-55. [hunting]
    Boswell, J. (1984). “Hunter’s guide to Australian game anatomy: Red kangaroo.” Australian Shooter’s Journal(March): 57-62. [hunting]
    Botterill, E. J. J. D. D. (2013). Exploitation or conservation: Can wildlife tourism help conserve vulnerable and endangered species? Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, 1(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1504/IER.2005.053939
    Bowman, B. (1989). Development of Farm and Country Holidays in Australia. Canberra, The Australian Tourism Industry Association, 11-18.
    Boyd, S. F., Johnny, C., & Bakansing, S. M. (2014). Man-Made Wildlife Tourism Destination: The Visitors Perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park, Sabah, Malaysia. SHS Web of Conferences, 12, 1068. https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20141201068
    Boyle, S. A. and F. B. Samson (1985). “Effects of Nonconsumptive Recreation on Wildlife: A Review.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 13: 110-116.
    Bradley, M. P., C. Lambert, et al. (?). “Reproduction and captive breeding as a tool for mammal conservation: The role of modern zoos.” Australian Mammalogy. [captive wildlife]
    Braithwaite, R. W. and R. C. Reynolds (1996). Wildlife Tourism at Yellow Waters: Final Report. Darwin, NT, CSIRO & Northern Territory University: 119-229.
    Brand, C., Marchant, L. (2015). Hair plucking in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 171, 192-196. [captive wildlife]
    Brandin, E. (2009). Versions of ‘wild’ and the importance of fences in Swedish wildlife tourism involving moose. Current Issues in Tourism, 12(5–6), 413–427. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500903042865
    Brando, S. And Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (2017). The 24/7 approach to promoting optimal welfare for captive wild animals. Behavioural Processes 156. DOI:10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.010 [captive wildlife]
    Brandon, K. (1993). Basic steps toward encouraging local participation in nature tourism projects. Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers – Volume 1. K. Lindberg and D. E. Hawkins. Vermont, The Ecotourism Society. 1.
    Brattstrom, B. H. and M. C. Bondello (1983). Effects of off-road vehicle noise on desert vertebrates. Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions. R. H. Webb and H. G. Wilshire. New York, Springer-Verlag. [negative impacts]
    Braverman, I. (2011). “Looking at Zoos.” Cultural Studies, 25(6), 809-842. [captive wildlife]
    Braverman, I. (2012). Zooland: The Institution of Captivity. Stanford University Press. [captive wildlife]
    Bresler, N. (2007). Wildlife tourism : Creating memorable and differentiated experiences. Acta Academica, 39(3), 165–182.
    Breton, G., Barrot, S. (2014). Influence of enclosure size on the distances covered and paced by captive tigers (Panthera tigris). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 154, 66-75. [captive wildife, mammals]
    Brett, M. R. (2017). How sustainable is sustainable wildlife tourism? https://doi.org/10.25675/10217/180972
    Brieze, I., J. K. Blackshaw, et al. (1995). A Comparison of the Behavioural Ecology of Provisioned and Non-Provisioned Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Eleventh Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando, Florida, USA. [marine, mammals]
    Brilot, B., Asher, L., Bateson, M. (2010). Stereotyping starlings are more ‘pessimistic’. Anim. Cogn. 13, 721-731. [captive wildlife]
    British Columbia Ministry of Water, L. a. A. P. (2002). Interim wildlife guidelines for commercial backcountry recreation in British Columbia- Chapter 3: Birds, Biodiversity Branch, Ecosystem Planning and Standards Section: 1-42. [guidelines]
    British Columbia Ministry of Water, L. a. A. P. (2002). Interim Wildlife Guidelines for Commercial Backcountry Recreation in British Columbia- Chapter 4: Mammals, Biodiversity Branch – Ecosystem Planning and Standards Section: 1-39. [guidelines]
    British Columbia Ministry of Water, L. a. A. P. (2002). Interim Wildlife Guidelines for Commercial Backcountry Recreation in British Columbia- Chapter 6:SOurces of Human-Caused Disturbance: 1-9. [guidelines]
    Broad, S., & Weiler, B. (1998). “Captive animals and interpretation: A tale of two tiger exhibits.” Journal of Tourism Studies 9(1), 14. [guidelines]
    Brockelman, W. Y. and P. Dearden (1990). “The role of nature trekking in conservation: a case-study in Thailand.” Environmental Conservation 17(2): 141-148. [conservation]
    Brook, S. (2000). Traffic takes toll on wildlife. The Weekend Australian: 18. [negative impacts]
    Brooke, J. (1996). Yellowstone wolves get an ally in tourist trade. New York Times. New York. [positive impact]
    Broom, D. (1988). The scientific assessment of animal welfare. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 20, 5-19. [monitoring]
    Broom, D. (1991). Animal welfare: concepts and measurement. J. Anim. Sci. 69, 4167-4175. [monitoring]
    Broom, D., Fraser, A. (2007). Domestic animal behaviour and welfare. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
    Broyer, J. (1997). “La Dombes.” Le Courrier de la Nature 166: 1-14.
    Brüne, M., Brüne-Cohrs, U., McGrew, W. (2004). Psychiatric treatment for great apes? Science 306, 2039. [captive wildlife]
    Brüne, M., Brüne-Cohrs, U., McGrew, W., Preuschoft, S. (2006). Psychopathology in great apes: concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 30, 1246-1259. [captive wildlife]
    Brunnschweiler, J. M., Payne, N. L., & Barnett, A. (2018). Hand feeding can periodically fuel a major portion of bull shark energy requirements at a provisioning site in Fiji. Animal Conservation, 21(1), 31–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12370
    Bryan, K., Bremner-Harrison, S., Price, E. and Wormell, D. (2017) The impact of exhibit type on behaviour of caged and free-ranging tamarins. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 193: 77–86. (captive wildlife)
    Buchanan-Smith, H., 2010. Marmosets and tamarins. In: Hubrecht, R., Kirkwood, J., (Ed.), The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animals. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK., pp. 543-563.
    Buchanan, R. (1979). “Edge disturbance in natural areas.” Australian Parks and Recreation August 1979: 39-43. [negative impacts]
    Buckingham, S. (1999). Locating Koalas in the Australian Bush. Bolwarrah, VIC, Bolwarrah Press. [monitoring]
    Buckley, R. (1999). Green Guide to White Water: Best-practice Environmental Management for Whitewater Raft and Kayak Tours. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism. [guidelines]
    Buckley, R. (2000). Green Guide for 4wd Tours: Best Practice Environmental Management for 4wd and Off-road Tours. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism. [guidelines]
    Buckley, R. (2000). Green Guide to Whale Watching: Best-practice Environmental Management for Boat-based Whale Watching Tours. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism. [guidelines]
    Buckley, R. C. (2000). “Tourism in the Most Fragile Environments.” Tourism Recreation Research 25(1): 31-40.
    Buckley, R. C. (2000). Tourism and Wilderness: Dancing with the Messy Monster. USDA Forest Service Conference 2000, Missoula, MT.
    Buckley, R. C. (2001). Environmental Impacts. The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism. D. Weaver: 379-394.
    Buckley, R. C. and M. Sommer (2001). Tourism and Protected Areas – Partnerships in Principle and Practice. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 37.
    Buckley, R. C., & Castley, J. G. (2012). Models of wildlife tourism. Biological Conservation, 152, 295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.03.026
    Buckley, R. C., Castley, J. G., de Vasconcellos Pegas, F., Mossaz, A. C., & Steven, R. (2012). A population accounting approach to assess tourism contributions to conservation of IUCN-redlisted mammal species. PloS one, 7(9), e44134. [conservation, mammals, monitoring]
    Buckley, R., & Mossaz, A. C. (2016). Decision making by specialist luxury travel agents. Tourism Management, 55, 133–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.02.002
    Buckley, R., Ed. (2003). Case Studies in Ecotourism. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing.
    Buckley, R., Pickering, Catherine, & Weaver, David. (2008). Nature-based tourism, environment, and land management (Ecotourism series; no. 1). Wallingford, Oxon, UK; Cambridge, MA, USA: CABI Pub. Fenner Conference on Nature Tourism and the Environment (2001: Canberra, A.C.T.)
    Buckley, R., Robinson, J., Carmody, J., King, N. (2008). Monitoring for management of conservation and recreation in Australian protected areas.Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 17(14), pp. 3589-3606. [management, conservation, monitoring]
    Buckley, Ralf. (2012). Sustainable tourism: Research and reality. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 528–546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2012.02.003
    Buckley, Ralf. (2013). MATERIAL CULTURE OF POST-COLONIAL WILDLIFE TOURISM. Annals of Tourism Research, 41, 225–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.01.011
    Budowski, G. (1976). “Tourism and Environmental Conservation: Conflict, Coexistence or Symbiosis.” Environmental Conservation 3(1): 27-31.
    Bueddefeld, J. N. H., & Van Winkle, C. M. (2017). Exploring the effect of zoo post-visit action resources on sustainable behavior change. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 25(9), 1205–1221. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2016.1257629
    Bunnell, F. L., D. Dunbar, et al. (1981). “Effects of disturbance on the productivity and numbers of white pelicans in British Columbia: observations and models.” Colonial Waterbirds 4: 2-11. [negative impacts]
    Bureau of Land Management California (2003). Ultimate Wildlife Watching, Bureau of Land Management California: 1-2.
    Burger, E. (1997). “Wildlife Feeding Report: Industrial Placement Report”, University of Queensland, Gatton Campus and the Department of Environment, Moggill, Qld.
    Burger, J. (1981). “The effect of human activity on birds at a coastal bay.” Biological Conservation 21: 231-241. [negative impacts]
    Burger, J. (1998). “Effects of motorboats and personal watercraft on flight behaviour over a colony of common terns.” The Condor 100: 528-534. [negative impact]
    Burger, J. (2000). Landscapes, tourism, and conservation. Science of the Total Environment, 249(1–3), 39–49.
    Burger, J. and M. Gochfeld (1991). “Human distance and birds: tolerance and response distances of resident and migrant species in India.” Environmental Conservation 18: 158-165. [negative impacts]
    Burger, J. and M. Gochfeld (1993). “Tourism and short-term behavioural responses of nesting masked, red-footed, and blue-footed, boobies in the Galapagos.” Environmental Conservation 20(3): 255-259. [negative impacts]
    Burger, J., M. Gochfeld, et al. (1995). “Ecotourism and birds in coastal New Jersey: Contrasting responses of birds, tourists, and managers.” Environmental Conservation 22(1): 56-65.
    Burghardt, G. (2013). Environmental enrichment and cognitive complexity in reptiles and amphibians: concepts, review, and implications for captive populations. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 147, 286-298. [captive wildlife]
    Burgin, S, Hardiman, N. (2015). Effects of non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism on marine species and prospects for their sustainable management. Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 151, pp. 210-220
    Burnie, D. (1994). “Ecotourists to paradise.” New Scientist 142(1921): 23-24. [ecotourism]
    Burns, D. (1996). “Attitude towards Tourism Development.” Annals of Tourism Research 23(4): 935-938. [attitudes]
    Burns, G. (2010). Dingoes, Penguins and People: Engaging Anthropology to Reconstruct the Management of Wildlife Tourism Interactions. Lambert Academic Publishing. [managment, attitudes]
    Burns, G. L. (2010). Lines in the sand: An anthropological discourse on wildlife tourism. European Journal of Tourism Research, 3(2), 119–122.
    Burns, G. L. and T. Sofield. (2001). Host Community: social and cultural issues concerning wildlife tourism. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-49.
    Burns, G. L., & Sofield, T. (2002). The Host Community: Social and Cultural Issues Concerning Wildlife Tourism. Gold Coast.
    Burns, G. L., & Sofield, T. H. B. (2001). The host community. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Burns, G. L., Macbeth, J., and Moore, S. (2011). Should dingoes die? Principles for engaging ecocentric ethics in wildlife tourism management. Journal of Ecotourism, 10(3): 179-196. [attitudes, management]
    Burns, G., L., (2004). The Host Community and Wildlife Tourism- Chapter7. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 125-144.
    Burns, G.L. (2006). The fascination of fur and feathers: Managing human-animal interactions in wildlife tourism settings. Australian Zoologist, 33(4), 446-457. [management]
    Burns, G.L. & Howard, P. (2003). When wildlife tourism goes wrong: a case study of stakeholder and management issues regarding Dingoes on Fraser Island, Australia, Tourism Management, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 699-712. [negative impacts, management]
    Burns, G.L., Howard, P (2003). When Wildlife Tourism Goes Wrong: A Case Study of Stakeholder and Management Issues regarding Dingoes on Fraser Island, Australia. Tourism Management 24.6 (2003): 699-712
    Burton, F. (1997). “Can Ecotourism Objectives be Achieved?” Annals of Tourism Research 25(3): 755-758. [ecotourism]
    Busby, G. and S. Rendle (2000). “The transition from tourism on farms to farm tourism.” Tourism Management 21: 635-642. [ecotourism]
    Butcher, J 2007, Ecotourism, NGOs and Development: A Critical Analysis, Routledge: Contemporary Geographies of Leisure, Tourism and Mobility, New York. [ecotourism]
    Butler, J. R. A., Middlemas, S. J., Mckelvey, S. A., & Mcmyn, I. (2008). The Moray Firth Seal Management Plan: An adaptive framework for balancing the conservation of seals, salmon, fisheries and wildlife tourism in the UK. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18(6), 1025–1038. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.923
    Butterworth, A., Mench, J., Wielebnowski, N., 2011. Practical strategies to assess (and improve) welfare. In: Appleby, M., Mench, J., Olsson, I., Hughes, B., (Ed.), Animal Welfare. CABI, Wallingford, UK., pp. 200-214.
    Butynski, T. M. and J. Kalina (1998). Gorilla Tourism: A Critical Look. Conservation of Biological Resources. E. J. Milner-Gulland and R. Mace. Oxford, Blackwell Science. [conservation]
    Buultjens, J (et al). (1998). Forest-based tourism and recreation in the Upper and Lower North East regions of NSW. Sydney : Barton, A.C.T.: Resource and Conservation Division, Dept. of Urban Affairs and Planning ; Forests Taskforce, Dept. of the Prime Minister and Cabinet
    Buultjens, J., Ratnayke, I., & Gnanapala, A. (2016). Whale watching in Sri Lanka: Perceptions of sustainability. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 125–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.02.003
    Byrne, N. (1994). Carrying capacity for recreation. Proceedings of the ANZECC 6th Australasian Regional Seminar on National Parks and Wildlife Management, Australian Alps, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council , Canberra.
    Byrne, R. W. (2015). The what as well as the why of animal fun. Current Biology, 25(1), R2-R4.
    Cagua, E. F., Collins, N., Hancock, J., & Rees, R. (2014). Whale shark economics: A valuation of wildlife tourism in South Ari Atoll, Maldives. PeerJ, 2014(1). https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.515
    Cagua, E.F., Collins, N., Hancock, J., & Rees, R. (2014). Whale shark economics: A valuation of wildlife tourism in South Ari Atoll, Maldives. PeerJ, Vol 2, p e515 (2014). [economics]
    Calas, B. (2016). Activating interactive landscape: Recent diversification in the kenyan wildlife tourism industry. Dynamiques Environnementales – Journal International Des Géosciences et de l’environnement, (35), 204–225.
    Cameron, E., Ryan, S. (2016). Welfare at multiple scales: Importance of zoo elephant population welfare in a world of declining wild populations. PLOS ONE 11, e0158701. [captive wildlife]
    Cannon, C. E. (1984). “Movements of lorikeets with an artificially supplemented diet.” Australian Wildlife Research 11: 173-179. [management]
    Carder, G., Plese, T., Machado, F. C., & Paterson, S. (2018). The impact of ‘selfie’ tourism on the behaviour and welfare of brown-throated three-toed sloths. Animals, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8110216
    Carfagno, G., Weatherhead, P. (2008). Energetics and space use: intraspecific and interspecific comparisons of movements and home ranges of two Colubrid snakes. J. Anim. Ecol. 77, 416-424. monitoring]
    Carlos Mestanza Ramón 1, 2. (2018). Environmental Impacts Of Tourism In Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve, Ecuador. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1247018
    Carlsen, J. & Hughes, M. (2008). Human-Wildlife Interaction Guidelines in Western Australia, Journal of Ecotourism, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 147-159. [guidelines]
    Carlson, L. H. and P. J. Godfrey (1989). “Human impact management in a coastal recreation and natural area.” Biological Conservation 49: 141-156. [management]
    Carlstead, K. and Shepherdson, D. (1994). Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Reproduction. Zoo Biology 13:447-458. [captive wildlife]
    Carpenter, L. H., D. J. Decker, et al. (2000). “Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity in Wildlife Management.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 5: 5-19. [management]
    Carr, N. (2016). An analysis of zoo visitors’ favourite and least favourite animals. Tourism Management Perspectives 20: 70–76. [captive wildlife, attitudes]
    Carr, N. and Broom, D. (eds) (2018). Tourism and Animal Welfare. CABI, Wallingford, UK
    Carrillo, E. and C. Vaughan (1993). “Behavioural change in Procyon spp. (Carnivora: procyonidae) caused by tourist visitation in a Costa Rican wildlife area.” Revista De Biologia Tropical 41(3): 843-848. [negative impacts]
    Case, B., Lewbart, G., Doerr, P. (2005). The physiological and behavioural impacts of and preference for an enriched environment in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 92, 353-365. [negative impacts]
    Cater, C. & Cater, E. (2007). The economic impacts of marine wildlife tourism, in CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 145-162. [economics, marine]
    Catibog-Sinha, C. (2011). “Zoo tourism and Conservation of Threatened Species: a collaborative programme in the Philippines.” In Frost, Warwick (ed.), Zoos and tourism: conservation, education, entertainment? Bristol: Channel view publication. 133–142. [captive wildlife]
    Catlin, J, Hughes, M, Jones, T, Jones, R, Campbell, R. (2012). Valuing individual animals through tourism: Science or speculation? Biological Conservation, vol. pp. 157, 93-98.
    Catlin, J. and Jones, R. (2010). “Whale shark tourism at Ningaloo Marine Park: A longitudinal study of wildlife tourism.” Tourism Management 31 (3): 386-394. [marine]
    Catlin, J., & Jones, R. (2010). Whale shark tourism at Ningaloo Marine Park: a longitudinal study of wildlife tourism. Tourism Management, 31(3), 386-394.
    Catlin, J., Jones, R. and Jones, R. (2011). “Revisiting Duffus and Dearden’s wildlife tourism framework.” Biological Conservation 144 (5): 1537-1544.
    Catlin, J., Jones, T., & Jones, R. (2012). Balancing commercial and environmental needs: Licensing as a means of managing whale shark tourism on Ningaloo reef. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 20(2), 163–178. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2011.602686
    Catlin, J., Jones, T., Norman, B., & Wood, D. (2010). Consolidation in a wildlife tourism industry: the changing impact of whale shark tourist expenditure in the Ningaloo coast region. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(2), 134-148. [marine]
    Catlin, James, & Jones, R. (2010). Whale shark tourism aat Ningaloo Marine Park. Tourism Management, 31(3), 386–394.
    Catlin, James, Hughes, M., Jones, T., & Jones, R. (2014). White sharks in Western Australia: Threat or opportunity? Journal of Ecotourism, 13(2–3), 159–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2015.1007868
    Catlin, James, Jones, R., Jones, T., Norman, B., & Wood, D. (2010). Discovering wildlife tourism: A whale shark tourism case study. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(4), 351–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500903019418
    Catlin, James, Jones, T., & Jones, R. (2012). Models of wildlife tourism: Duffus and Dearden revisited. Biological Conservation, 152, 296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.03.027
    Cattet, M. R. (2013). Falling through the Cracks: Shortocmings in the Collaboration between Biologists and Veterinarians and Their Consequences for Wildlife. ILAR Journal, 54, 33–40.
    Cavagnaro, E., Staffieri, S., & Huisman, T. (2016). Fun, animal welfare or community development? Understanding young tourists’ preferences for a wildlife tourism package. Research in Hospitality Management, 6(2), 135–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/22243534.2016.1253279
    Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996). Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas. IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Venezuela.
    Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1998). Birdwatching and Ecotourism. The Ecotourism Soceity Newsletter. First Quarter 1998: 1-3.
    Chalip, L. and S. Fairley (2002). Positioning the Gold Coast in International Tourist Markets: Gold Coast Tourism Visioning Project 2.1 (Part 1). Gold Coast, QLD, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Chandler, C. O., Curtis, A. M., Mommert, M., & Sheppard, S. S. (2018). SAFARI: Searching asteroids for activity revealing indicators. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 130(993). https://doi.org/10.1088/1538-3873/aad03d
    Chanteloup, L. (2013). Wildlife as a tourism resource in Nunavut. The Polar Record, 49(3), 240. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0032247412000617
    Chawla, R. (2003). Wildlife tourism and development (Tourism and development series). New Delhi: Sonali Publications
    Che, D., & Cable, T. (2010). Managing prairie dogs for prairie heritage, biodiversity, and wildlife tourism. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 5(4), 285–296. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873X.2010.517842
    Child, G. F. T. and R. A. Heath (1990). “Underselling national parks in Zimbabwe: the implications for rural sustainability.” Society and Natural Resources 3(3): 215-227.
    Chirgwin, S. (?). Jumping crocodile cruises – are they sustainable? Darwin, Northern Territory University.
    Chirgwin, S. and K. Hughes (1997). “Ecotourism: The participants’ perceptions.” The Journal of Tourism Studies 8(2): 2-7. [attitudes]
    Choi, Y. E., Song, K., Kim, M., & Lee, J. (2017). Transformation Planning for Resilient Wildlife Habitats in Ecotourism Systems. Sustainability, 9(4), 487. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040487
    Choudhury, H., Thaosen, S., Dey, A., & Basumatary, S. (2018). Length‐weight relationships of three fish species from the Jatinga River (Barak drainage) in Assam, India. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 34(4), 1089–1090. https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13727
    Christie, I., Fernandes, E., Messerli, H., & Twining-Ward, L. (2014). Tourism in Africa : Harnessing Tourism for Growth and Improved Livelihoods. Washington, DC: World Bank and Agence Française de Développement.
    Clark, F. E. (2011). Great ape cognition and captive care: Can cognitive challenges enhance well-being? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 135: 1–12 [captive wildlife, mammals]
    Clark, R. N. and G. H. Stankey (1979). The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: A Framework for Planning, Management, and Research, US Dept of Agriculture, Forest Service. [management]
    Clauss, M., Rose, P., Hummel, J., Hatt, J-M. (2006). Serous fat atrophy and other nutrition-related health problems in captive giraffe-an evaluation of 83 necropsy reports. Proceedings of the European Association of Zoo & Wildlife Veterinarians 6, 233-235. [captive wildlife, mammals]
    Clay, N. (2016). Producing hybrid forests in the Congo Basin: A political ecology of the landscape approach to conservation. Geoforum, 76, 130–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2016.09.008
    Clayton, C. and R. Mendelsohn (1993). “The value of watchable wildlife: A case study of McNeil River.” Journal of Environmental Management 39(2): 101-106.
    Clements, J. M., McCright, A. M., Dietz, T., & Marquart-Pyatt, S. T. (2015) “A behavioural measure of environmental decision-making for social surveys.” Environmental Sociology 1(1), 27-37.
    Cless, I., Voss-Hoynes, H., Ritzmann, R., Lukas, K. (2015). Defining pacing quantitatively: a comparison of gait characteristics between pacing and non-repetitive locomotion in zoo-housed polar bears. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 169, 78-85. [captive wildlife, mammals]
    Clubb, R., & Mason, G. (2003). Animal welfare: captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Nature, 425(6957), 473. [captive wildlife, mammals]
    Clubb, R., Mason, G. (2007). Natural behavioural biology as a risk factor in carnivore welfare: How analysing species differences could help zoos improve enclosures. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102, 303-328. [captive wildlife, mammals]
    Clubb, R., Mason, G., 2002. A review of the welfare of zoo elephants in Europe. RSPCA, Horsham, UK. [captive wildlife, mammals]
    Coastcare (2002). Minimal Impact Sea Kayaking (MISK)- A code of conduct for sea kayakers visiting sensitive coastal environments in Tasmania, Coastcare: 1-27. [guidelines]
    Cochrane, J. (1993). Tourism and conservation in Indonesia and Malaysia. Tourism in South East Asia. M. Hitchcock, King, V.T., Parnwell, M.J.G., King, V.T., Parnwell, M.J.G. London, UK, Routledge: 317-326.
    Coghlan, A (2008). Can tourism and wildlife ever mix? Volume 199. No. 2669, p10
    Coglan, A., Fox, K.R., Prideaux, B. and Luck, M. (2009). “Successful interpretation in Great Barrier Reef Tourism: dive in or keep out of it?” Proceedings of CMT2009, the 6th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism June, 2009, Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa: 47-60
    Cole, D. N. (1992). “Modelling wilderness campsites: factors that influence amount of impact.” Environmental Management 16(2): 255-264. [negative impacts]
    Cole, D. N., M. E. Petersen, et al. (1987). Managing Wilderness Recreation Use: Common Problems and Potential Solutions. Ogden, UTAH, US Dept of Agriculture – Forest Service: 1-5. [management]
    Collar, N., Butchart, S. (2014)). Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. Int. Zoo. Yearb. 48, 7-28. [captive wildlife]
    Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) (1999). The development of Sustainable Tourism in Natural Areas in North America: Background, Issues and Opportunities, Mexico.
    Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). (1999). Sustainable Tourism in Natural Areas (unpublished). Montreal: 70-97.
    Commission, P. (2001). Productivity Commission Submission to the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service: Submission on Native Wildlife Review.
    Cong, L, Bihu, W, Morrison, A.M., Hua, S, Wang, M (2014). Analysis of Wildlife Tourism Experiences with Endangered Species: An Exploratory Study of Encounters with Giant Pandas in Chengdu, China. Tourism Management 40 (Array): 300-10. [mammals]
    Cong, L, Wu, B, Morrison, A.M., Shu, H, Wang, M. (2013). Analysis of wildlife tourism experiences with endangered species: An exploratory study of encounters with giant pandas in Chengdu, China. Tourism Management, vol. 40, pp. 300-310
    Cong, L., & Wu, B. (2014). Wildlife tourism experience based on internet text content analysis: A case study of Chengdu research base for giant panda breeding. Beijing Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 50(6), 1087–1094. https://doi.org/10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.149
    Cong, L., Newsome, D., Wu, B., & Morrison, A. (2014). Wildlife tourism in China: A review of the Chinese research literature. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-24
    Cong, L., Newsome, D., Wu, B., & Morrison, A. M. (2017). Wildlife tourism in China: A review of the Chinese research literature. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(11), 1116–1139. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2014.948811
    Cong, L., Wu, B., Zhang, Y., & David, N. (2017). Risk perception of interaction with Dolphin in Bunbury, West Australia. Beijing Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 53(1), 179–188. https://doi.org/10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.040
    Cong, L., Wu, B., Zhang, Y., & Newsome, D. (2017). Research on Place Involvement in Wildlife Tourism: A Case Study of Dolphin Discovery Center in Bunbury, Australia. Beijing Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 53(4), 715–721. https://doi.org/10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.064
    Connell, J. (2009). Birdwatching, Twitching and Tourism: Towards an Australian perspective. Australian Geographer, 40(2), 203-218.
    Conover, M. (1999). “Can waterfowl be taught to avoid food handouts through conditioned food aversions?” Wildlife Society Bulletin 7(1): 160-166. [negative impacts]
    Conway, W. (1995). Wild and zoo animal interactive management and habitat conservation. Biodiversity & Conservation, 4(6), 573-594. [captive wildlife, management]
    Conway, W. (1999). The Changing role of Zoos in the 21st Century. Annual Conference of the World Zoo Organization, Pretoria, South Africa. [captive wildlife]
    Cook, E. (1999). Being a Zoo Designer: achievements and challenges. The Human Factor in interpretation: Interpretation Australia Association National Conference, Hobart, Interpretation Australia Association. [interpretation, captive wildlife]
    Cooke, A. S. (1990). “Observations on how close certain passerine species will tolerate an approaching human in rural and suburban areas.” Biological Conservation 18: 85-88. [negative impacts]
    Cooper, M. E. (2003). “Zoo legislation.” International Zoo Yearbook 38: 81-93. [captive wildlife]
    Cooperative Research Center for Sustainable Tourism. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series No 6 [R]. Queensland: 2001.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism (2009).Wildlife tourism: challenges, opportunities and managing the future, CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast, Qld.
    Copping, J. P., Stewart, B. D., McClean, C. J., & Hancock, J. (2018). Does bathymetry drive coastal whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregations? PeerJ, 2018(6). https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4904
    Cordell H K, McDonald B L ,Teasely R J, et al. Recreation Participation Trends [A]. / /: Cordell H K. Outdoor Outdoor·64·Tourism Tribune Vol.27 No.5,2012 page9image2496
    Cordell, H. K. and N. G. Herbert (2002). “The popularity of birding is still growing.” Birding 34: 54-59.
    Cordell, H. K., J. C. Bergstrom, et al. (1990). An Analysis of the Outdoor Recreation and Wilderness Situation in the United States: 1989-2040, USDA Forest Service.
    Cornell, D. and J. E. Cornely (1979). “Aversive conditioning of campground coyotes in Joshua Tree National Monument.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 7(2): 129-131. [negative impacts]
    Cosgriff, K. (1997). Wildlife Tourism in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Charles Sturt University, Charles Sturt University.
    Cott, M. B. (1969). “Tourists and crocodiles in Uganda.” Oryx 10: 153-160.
    Cousins, J. A., Evans, J., & Sadler, J. P. (2009). “I’ve paid to observe lions, not map roads!” – An emotional journey with conservation volunteers in South Africa. Geoforum, 40(6), 1069–1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.09.001
    Cowan, V., K. Whipple, et al. (1998). “From Meerkats to Mickey – Interpreting with Live Animals.” National Association for Interpretation: 183-185. [interpretation]
    Cowling, M., Kirkwood, R. J., Boren, L., & Sutherland, D. (2015). The effects of vessel approaches on the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocepahlus forsteri) in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science, 31(2).
    Cowling, M., Kirkwood, R., Boren, L. J., & Scarpaci, C. (2014). The effects of seal-swim activities on the New Zealand fur seal (Arctophoca australis forsteri) in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, and recommendations for a sustainable tourism industry. Marine Policy, 45, 39–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.11.010
    Crabtree, A. E. and R. S. Black (2000). EcoGuide Program Guide Workbook. Brisbane, Ecotourism Association of Australia,: 1-58. [guidelines]
    Crane, M. (2007) Without the wisdom of Solomon or his ring: Setting standards for exhibited animals in New South Wales. Journal of Veterinary Behavior (2007) 2, 223-229
    CRC For Sustainable Tourism (2002). Wildlife Tourism: Endangered Or Sustainable Growth? Program and Abstracts, First National Convention on Wildlife Tourism in Australia, Hobart, Tasmania 28th – 30th October, 2001.
    CRC for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management (1997). Possums under the spotlight. Townsville, Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management: 1-2.
    CRC Reef Research Centre (2003). Marine Turtle Conservation, CRC Reef Research Centre: 1-2. [conservation]
    Creel, S. and N. M. Creel (1997). “Lion density and population structure in the Selous Game Reserve: evaluation of hunting quotas and offtake.” African Journal of Ecology 35(2): 83-93. [hunting]
    Crinion, D. and S. McArthur (1997). TOMM a new super model. Talking Tourism. 12: 11-11. [ecotourism]
    Croak, B., Pike, D., Webb, J., Shine, R. (2008). Three-dimensional crevice structure affects retreat site selection by reptiles. Anim. Behav. 76, 1875-1884.
    Croall J. (1995). Preserve or Destroy: Tourism and the Environment [M]. London: Gulbenkian Foundation, 36. [ecotourism]
    Crofoot, M., Mace, M., Azua, J., MacDonald, E., Czekala, N. (2003). Reproductive assessment of the great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) by fecal hormone analysis. Zoo Biol. 22, 135-145. [captive wildlife]
    Croft, D. (2000). “Sustainable use of wildlife in western NSW: Possibilities and problems.” Journal of Rangelands 22(1): 88-104. [management]
    Croft, D. (2001). Rangeland kangaroos : A world class wildlife experience (Wildlife tourism research report series ; no. 16). Gold Coast, Qld.: CRC for Sustainable Tourism [ecotourism]
    Croft, D. and N. Leiper (2001). Assessment of Opportunities for International Tourism Based on Wild Kangaroos. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-107. [ecotourism]
    Croft, D., James, R., Thomas, P., Hathaway, C., Mawdsley, D., Laland, K., Krause, J., (2006). Social structure and cooperative interactions in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 59, 644-650.
    Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. (1998). Code of Birding Ethics-Good Rules for all Wildlife Watchers, Sacramento Auduban Society, Outdoor California: 1.[guidelines]
    Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. (1998). Guidelines for Protecting Manatees, Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge: 1. [guidelines]
    Curry, B., W. Moore, et al. (2001). “Modelling Impacts of Wildlife Tourism on Animal Communities: A Case Study from Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9(6): 514-529. [negative impacts, positive impacts]
    Curry, S. (1982). Wildlife conservation and game-viewing tourism in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Economic Research Bureau, University of Dar es Salaam: 29.[conservation]
    Curtin, S. (05/7/2009). “The self-presentation and self-development of serious wildlife tourists.” International Journal of Tourism Research.Volume 12(1):17–33, January/February 2010.
    Curtin, S. (2005). Nature, wild animals and tourism: An experiential view. Journal of Ecotourism, 4(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040508668434
    Curtin, S. (2009). “From Sandals and beards to sophisticated urbanities: The opportunities and management dilemmas of dynamic wildlife tourism sector.” 18th International Research Conference: 10th – 13th February 2009 at the Esplanade Hotel, Fremantle, Western Australia. [ecotourism]
    Curtin, S. (2009). “Wildlife tourism: the intangible, psychological benefits of human-wildlife encounters.” Current Issues in Tourism 2009 Vol. 12:451-474. Carr, N.
    Curtin, S. (2009). Wildlife tourism: The intangible, psychological benefits of human-wildlife encounters. Current Issues in Tourism, 12(5–6), 451–474. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500903042857
    Curtin, S. (2010). “Being on a wildlife tour: Negotiating the hidden tensions of overt participant observation.”
    Curtin, S. (2010). “Managing the wildlife tourism experience: The importance of Tour Leaders.” International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol 12:219-236. [management]
    Curtin, S. (2010). “What makes for memorable wildlife encounters? Revelations from “serious” wildlife tourists.” Journal of Ecotourism. 2010 Vol.9:149-168. [attitudes]
    Curtin, S. (2010). What makes for memorable wildlife encounters? Revelations from “serious” wildlife tourists. Journal of Ecotourism, 9(2), 149–168. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040903071969
    Curtin, S. (2013). Lessons from Scotland: British wildlife tourism demand, product development and destination management. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2(3), 196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2013.09.002
    Curtin, S. (Sep- Nov 2009). “Wildlife Tourism: The intangible, psychological benefits of human-wildlife encounters.” Current Issues In Tourism,Vol. 12:451-274. [postive impacts]
    Curtin, S. & Kragh, G. (2014). Wildlife Tourism: Reconnecting People with Nature, Human Dimensions of Wildlife, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 545-554. [positive impacts]
    Curtin, S. C. (2009). James Higham and Michael Lück, Editors, Marine Wildlife and Tourism Management: Insights from the Natural and Social Sciences, CAB International, Wallingford (2008) ISBN 978-1-84593-345-6, p. 395 (hbk). £65.00. Tourism Management, 30(4), 609–610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2008.10.001
    Curtin, S., & Wilkes, K. (2005). British wildlife tourism operators: Current issues and typologies. Current Issues in Tourism, 8(6), 455–478. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500508668231
    Curtis, L. K., Dennis, A. J., McDonald, K. R., Kyne, P. M. and Debus, S. S. (2012). Queensland’s Threatened Animals. CSIRO Publishing [conservation]
    Cuthill, M. and D. Bass (1996). Involving local communities in coastal monitoring programs: the role of interpretation design, delivery and evaluation. Fifth Annual Interpretation Australian Association Conference, Bendigo. [interpretation]
    CWTH Dept of Tourism (1994). National Ecotourism Strategy. Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service. [ecotourism]
    CWTH of Australia (1994). Commercial Use of Wild Animals in Australia. S. Moore. Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service: 10-15,22-23. [economics]
    CWTH Productivity Commission (2001). Constraints on Private Conservation of Biodiversity. Canberra, Ausinfo. [conservation]
    CWTH Productivity Commission (2001). Harnessing Private Sector Conservation of Biodiversity. Canberra, Ausinfo. [conservation]
    D’Cruze, N., Niehaus, C., Balaskas, M., & Vieto, R. (2018). Wildlife tourism in Latin America: Taxonomy and conservation status. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 26(9), 1562–1576. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1484752
    Dale, P. E. R. and K. Hulsman (1988). “To identify impacts in variable systems using anomalous changes: a salt marsh example.” Vegetatio 75: 27-35. [negative impacts]
    Dallaire, J., Meagher, R., Mason, G. (2012). Individual differences in stereotypic behaviour predict individual differences in the nature and degree of enrichment use in caged American mink. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 142, 98-108. [captive wildlife].
    Dans, S. L., Crespo, E. A., & Coscarella, M. A. (2017). Wildlife tourism: Underwater behavioral responses of South American sea lions to swimmers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 188, 91–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2016.12.010
    Das, B. (2014). Economics of wildlife conservation and protected area tourism. Serials Publ.
    Das, M., & Chatterjee, B. (2015). Ecotourism: A panacea or a predicament? Tourism Management Perspectives, 14, 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.01.002
    Dasmann, R. F. (1982). The relationship between protected areas and Indigenous people. National Parks, Conservation and Development: The Role of Protected Areas in Sustaining Society, Bali, Indonesia, Smithsinian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
    Datta, T. and B. C. Pal (1993). “The effect of human interference on the nesting of the Openbill Stork Anastomus oscitans at the Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary, India.” Biological Conservation 64: 149-154. [negative impacts, positive impacts]
    Davidson, S. K., Passmore, C., & Anderson, D. (2010). “Learning on zoo field trips: The interaction of the agendas and practices of students, teachers, and zoo educators.” Science Education 94(1), 122-141. [captive wildlife, attitudes]
    Davies, M. (1987). Wildlife as a visitor attraction. Recreation and wildlife: working in partnership. Talbot-Ponson. Bristol, Countryside Recreation Research Advisory Group.
    Davies, M. (1990). “Wildlife as a tourism attraction.” Environments Waterloo 20(3): 74-77.
    Davis, D. and C. A. Tisdell (1998). “Tourist levies and willingness to pay for a whale shark experience.” Tourism Economics 5(2): 161-174. [economics, marine]
    Davis, D. and C. Tisdell (1995). “Recreational scuba-diving and carrying capacity in marine protected areas.” Ocean and Coastal Management 26(1): 19-40. [marine]
    Davis, D. and C. Tisdell (1996). “Economic management of recreational scuba diving and the environment.” Journal of Environmental Management 48: 229-248. [economics, marine]
    Davis, D. C. (1998). “Whale Shark Tourism in Ningaloo Marine Park, Australia.” Anthrozoos 11(1): 5-11.
    Davis, D. C., A. Birtles, et al. (1997). “Whale Sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: Managing Tourism in an Australian Marine Protected Area.” Tourism Management 18(5): 259-271.
    Davis, D., C. Tisdell, et al. (2001). “Role of Economics in Managing Wildlife Tourism.” 1-55. [economics, marine]
    Davis, D., Tisdell, C. A. (Clement A., & Hardy, M. (2001). The role of economics in managing wildlife tourism. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Davis, M., Newsome, D., Moncrieff, D. and Smith, A. (2007) Conserving the Black-flanked Rock-Wallaby (Petrogale lateralis lateralis) through tourism: development of a habitat ranking system for translocated animals and the need for on-going management. Conservation Science Western Australia, 6(1): 1-12. [conservation]
    Dawkins, M. S. (2004) Using behaviour to assess animal welfare. Animal Welfare 13: S3-7
    de Groot, R. S. (1983). “Tourism and conservation in the Galapagos Islands.” Biological Conservation 26: 291-300. [conservation]
    Decker, D. J. and G. R. Goff (1987). Valuing Wildlife: Economic and Social Perspectives. London, Westview Press. [attitudes, economics]
    Decker, D. J., T. L. Brown, et al. (2001). Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management in North America. Bethesda, Maryland, The Wildlife Society.
    Delaney, D. K., T. G. Grubb, et al. (?). “Effects of helicopter noise on mexican spotted owls.” Journal of Wildlife Management 61(1): 60-76. [negative impacts]
    DeLorenzo, J., & Techera, E. J. (2019). Ensuring good governance of marine wildlife tourism: A case study of ray-based tourism at Hamelin Bay, Western Australia. ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF TOURISM RESEARCH, 24(2), 121–135. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2018.1541186
    Denali National Park and Preserve (2001). Photographers Code of Ethics, Denali National Park: 1-4. [guidelines]
    Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. (2012). Secretary of State’s standards of modern zoo practice. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/secretary-of-state-s-standards-of-modern-zoo-practice. Accessed February 21st, 2017.
    Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources (2003). Pursuing Common Goals. Canberra, ACT, Australian Government.
    Department of the Environment and Heritage (1996). The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans, Australian Government: 1-19.
    Descubes, I., McNamara, T., & Claasen, C. (2018). E-Marketing communications of trophy hunting providers in Namibia: Evidence of ethics and fairness in an apparently unethical and unfair industry? CURRENT ISSUES IN TOURISM, 21(12), 1349–1354. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2017.1299696
    Dey, A., Choudhury, H., Basumatary, S., & Bharali, R. C. (2018). Length–weight relationships of three freshwater fish species from the Kameng River (Brahmaputra basin) in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 34(4), 1002–1003. https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13635
    Dhinda, M. S., P. E. Komers, et al. (1989). “Nest height of Black-billed Magpies: is it determined by human disturbance or habitat type?” Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 228-232.
    Dickinson, R. and B. Edmondson (1996). “Golden Wings.” American Demographics 18(12): 47-49.
    Dickman, A., Packer, C., Johnson, P. J., & Macdonald, D. W. (2018). A sideways look at conservation and consistency in tourism policy. Conservation Biology, 32(3), 744–746. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13066
    Díez Gutiérrez, M., Tørset, T., Skjetne, E., & Odeck, J. (2017). Tourist traffic simulation as a protected area management tool. The case of Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. Tourism Management Perspectives, 22, 54–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2017.01.005
    Dimmock, K., Hawkins, E. R., & Tiyce, M. (2014). Stakeholders, industry knowledge and adaptive management in the Australian whale-watching industry. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(7), 1108–1121. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2013.879311
    Ditton, R. B., S. M. Holland, et al. (2002). “Recreational Fishing as Tourism.” Fisheries 27(3): 17-24.
    Dobson, J. (2006). Sharks, Wildlife Tourism, and State Regulation, Tourism in Marine Environments, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 15-23.
    Dobson, J. (2008). Shark! A new frontier in tourist demand for marine wildlife. Marine Wildlife and Tourism Management: Insights from the Natural and Social Sciences, 49–65.
    Dobson, John. (2006). Sharks, wildlife tourism, and state regulation. Tourism in Marine Environments, 3(1), 15–23. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427306779380275
    Dobson, John. (2011). Towards a Utilitarian Ethic for Marine Wildlife Tourism. Tourism in Marine Environments, 7(3), 213–222. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162976
    Dominion Consulting Pty Ltd (1999). A National Review of the Recreation Fishing Sector: A Report to Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry – Australia. Canberra, Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.
    Dorricott, K. and B. Roberts (?). Wildlife Conservation on Planned Properties – A Guidebook for Queensland Landholders, University of Southern Queensland.
    Doucette, J. E. and D. N. Cole (1993). Wilderness Visitor Education: Information About Alternative Techniques. Ogden, UT, US Dept of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain ResearchStation: 38.
    Dowling, R. (1993). “An environmentally-based planning model for regional tourism development.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 1(1): 17-37.
    Dowling, R. (2008). Australian wildlife tourism. Journal of Ecotourism, 7(2–3), 97–101. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040802453482
    Dowling, R. K. and J. Sharp (1997). “Conservation – tourism partnerships in Western Australia.” Tourism Recreation Research 22(2): 55-60. [conservation]
    Dragon Search (?). Diving with Dragons-A Code of Conduct for Diving into the Dragon’s Lair, Dragon Search: 1-4-. [guidelines]
    Driml, S. and M. Common (1995). “Economic and Financial Benefits of Tourism in Protected Areas.” Australian Journal of Environmental Management 2(1): 19-29. [economics]
    Drummond, L. (1987). High rollers and the booby bird. Christmas Island. The Weekend Australian: supplement.
    Dubois, S., & Fraser, D. (2013). A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation. Animals, 3(4), 978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani3040978
    Duda, M. D., & Young, K. (1996). Public opinion on hunting, fishing and endangered species. Responsive Management, 48, 1-12. [attitudes, hunting]
    Duda, M. D., B. J. Gruva, et al. (1998). Large Predator Reintroduction. Wildlife and the American Mind. Harrisonburg, VA, Responsive Management.
    Duda, M. D., B. J. Gruver, et al. (1998). Consumptive Wildlife-Related Activities. Wildlife and the American Mind. Harrisonburg, VA, Responsive Management.
    Duda, M. D., B. J. Gruver, et al. (1998). Private Property and Wildlife Recreation. Wildlife and the American Mind. Harrisonburg, VA, Responsive Management.
    Duda, M. D., B. J. Gruver, et al. (1998). Wildlife and the American Mind. Harrisonburg, VA, Responsive Management.
    Duda, M. D., B. J. Gruver, et al. (1998). Wildlife Viewing. Wildlife and the American Mind. Harrisonburg, VA, Responsive Management.
    Duff, L. (1993). “Ecotourism in National Parks: Impacts and Benefits.” National Parks Journal(June): 18-20. [ecotourism]
    Duffus, D. A. and K. J. Wipond (1992). “A review of the institutionalization of wildlife viewing in British Columbia, Canada.” Northwest Environmental Journal 8(2): 325-345.
    Duffus, D. A. and P. Dearden (1990). “Non-consumptive wildlife-oriented recreation: a conceptual framework.” Biological Conservation 53: 213-231.
    Duffy, E. (1975). “The effects of human trampling on the fauna of grassland litter.” Biological Conservation 7: 255-274. [negative impacts]
    Duffy, R., & Moore, L. (2011). Global regulations and local practices: The politics and governance of animal welfare in elephant tourism. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 19(4–5), 589–604. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2011.566927
    Duim, R., Lamers, M, Wijk, J (2014). Institutional arrangements for conservation, development and tourism in Eastern and Southern Africa : A dynamic perspective. Dordrecht: Springer
    Dunn, J. (1984). “Fair game: draft code of practice for the shooting of kangaroos.” Australian Shooter’s Journal 10(Oct): 86-87. [hunting, guidelines]
    Dunnett, G. M. (1977). “Observations on the effects of low-flying aircraft and seabird colonies on the coast of Aberdeenshire, Scotland.” Biological Conservation 12: 55-64
    Dyer, P. (1999). Linking Science and Interpretation: The Burrowscope’s Potential in Ecotourism. Interpretation Australia Association National Conference: The Human Factor in Interpretation, Hobart, Interpretation Australia Association. [ecotourism]
    Dyer, P. K. and K. Aldworth (1998). “The “Burrowscope”: Modifications to Burrow Viewing Equipment.” Emu 98: 143-146.
    Dymond, S. J. (1997). “Indicators of sustainable tourism in New Zealand: a local government perspective.” Sustainable Tourism 5(4): 279-293.
    Eagles, P. F. J. and J. Martens (1998). “A Rejoinder to Strickland’s Commentary on “Wilderness Tourism and Forestry: The Possible Dream in Algonquin Provincial Park”.” Journal of Applied Recreation Research 23(2): 197-199.
    Earthwatch Institute (2000). Earthwatch 2000 Research and Exploration. Massachusetts, USA, Earthwatch Expeditions Inc.
    EAZA, 2015. Specialist programmes. European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Available at: www.eaza.net/conservation/programmes. Accessed December 11th, 2015.
    Eckstein, R. G., T. F. O’Brien, et al. (1979). “Snowmobile effects on movements of white-tailed deer: a case study.” Environmental Conservation 6: 45-51.
    Eco-Tourism, Wildlife Conservation, Sustainability: What’s on Your Environmental Bucket List? (2015). La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology.
    Ecological and Wildlife Tourism in Rajasthan: The Terra Incognita. (2013). In Faunal Heritage of Rajasthan, India : Conservation and Management of Vertebrates (Vol. 2).
    Edington, J. M. and M. A. Edington (1986). Chapter 2: Active Physical Pursuits, Chapter 3: Observing Wildlife and Chapter 9: Environmental Effects of Tourist Support Facilties. Ecology Recreation and Tourism. J. M. Edington. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 13-50, 167-176.
    Edington, J. M. and M. A. Edington (1986). Chapter 3: Observing Wildlife and Chapter 4: Recreational Hunting and Fishing. Ecology Recreation and Tourism. J. M. Edington. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 34-76.
    Edington, J. M. and N. A. Edington (1986). Chapter 7: Insect Nuisances and Chapter 8: Hazards Associated with Large Animals. Ecology, Recreation and Tourism. J. M. Edington. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 118-166.
    Edroma, E. L. (1997). Wildlife tourism and other products from wildlands. XI World Forestry Congress, Antalya, Turkey.
    Eisenberg, J., McKay, G., Jainudeen, M. (1971). Reproductive behavior of the Asiatic elephant. Behaviour 38, 193-224. [mammals, captive wildlife]
    Eltringham, S. K. (1984). Chapter 14: Wildlife and Tourism. Wildlife Resources and Economic Development. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons: 245-259.
    Eltringham, S. K. (1984). Wildlife Resources and Economic Development. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons.
    Engels, T. M. and C. W. Sexton (1994). “Negative correlation of blue jays and golden-cheeked warblers near an urbanizing area.” Conservation Biology 8(1): 286-290. [negative impacts]
    Enzenbacher, D. J. (1992). “Antarctic tourism and environmental concerns.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 25: 258-265.
    Erize, F. J. (1987). “The impact of tourism on the Antarctic environment.” Environment International 13: 133-136.
    Erwin, R. M. (1980). “Breeding habitat use by colonially nesting waterbirds in two mid-Atlantic U.S. regions under different regimes of human disturbance.” Biological Conservation 18: 39-51. [negative impacts]
    Ethos Consulting (1991). The Commercial Wildlife Viewing Product, Ministry of Tourism, British Columbia: 80 pages.
    Eubanks, T. (2003, 07/01/2003). “Nurturing Economic Conservation Efforts Along the Texas Coast, The Development of the Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail.” Retrieved 19/06, 2003, from http://www.fermatainc.com/ttt-trail.html.
    Evans, J., & Jones, P. (2011). “The walking interview: Methodology, mobility and place.” Applied Geography 31(2), 849-858.
    Evans, J., Cuthill, I., Bennett, A. (2006)The effect of flicker from fluorescent lights on mate choice in captive birds. Anim. Behav. 72, 393-400. [captive wildlife]
    Evans, J., Smith, E., Bennett, A., Cuthill, I., Buchanan, K. (2012). Short-term physiological and behavioural effects of high- versus low-frequency fluorescent light on captive birds. Anim. Behav. 83, 25-33. [captive wildlife]
    Evans, L. V. (1999). Measuring the benefits of multi-media Interpretive Centres in natural environments. Interpretation Australia Association National Conference: The Human Factor in Interpretation, Hobart, Interpretation Australia Association.
    Evans, P. G. H. (1996). Human disturbance of cetaceans. The Exploitation of Mammal Populations. V. Taylor and N. Dunstone. London, Chapman & Hall: 383-385. [marine, mammal, negative impacts]
    Eveleth, R. 2010. Zoo Illogical: Ugly Animals Need Protection from Extinction, Too. Scientific American December 2010: 12
    Ewen, J. G., Sainsbury, A. W., Jackson, B., & Canessa, S. (2015). Disease risk management in reintroduction. In D. P. Armstrong, M. W. Hayward, P. J. Seddon, & D. Moro (Eds.), Advances in Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna (pp. 43–57). Victorial, Australia: CSIRO Publsihing.
    Falk, J. H., Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Benckendorff, P. (2012). Travel and Learning: A Neglected Tourism Research Area. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 908–927. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.11.016
    Falk, J.H.; Reinhard, E.M.; Vernon, C.L.; Bronnenkant, K.; Deans, N.L.; Heimlich, J.E. (2007). “Why Zoos & Aquariums Matter: Assessing the Impact of a Visit.” Silver Spring, MD: Association of Zoos & Aquariums. [captive wildlife]
    Farnsworth, C. H. (1997). Australians enjoy a bullish market in wild camels. New York Times.
    Farr, M., Stoeckl, N., & Alam Beg, R. (2014). The non-consumptive (tourism) ‘value’ of marine species in the Northern section of the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Policy, 43, 89–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.05.002
    Fatima, Johra K., & Khan, M. A. (2017). World around wildlife tourism. In Wilderness of Wildlife Tourism.
    Fatima, Johra Kayeser (Ed.). (2017b). Wilderness of wildlife tourism. Oakville, ON ; Waretown, NJ: Apple Academic Press.
    Fatima, Johra Kayeser. (2017a). Wilderness of wildlife tourism.
    Fears, D., & Rozsa, L. (2018). Florida’s unusually long red tide is killing wildlife, tourism and businesses. The Washington Post (Online).
    Feather, P., D. Hellerstein, et al. (1999). Economic valuation of environmental benefits and the targeting of conservation programs: The case of the CRP. Washington DC, US Dept of Agriculture.
    Fennell, D. A. (2011). Tourism and animal ethics. Routledge.
    Fennell, D. A. (2012). “Tourism, animals and utilitarianism.” Tourism Recreation Research 37(3), 239-249.
    Fennell, D. A. (2014). Exploring the boundaries of a new moral order for tourism’s global code of ethics: An opinion piece on the position of animals in the tourism industry. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(7), 983–996. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2014.918137
    Fennell, D. A. (2015). “The status of animal ethics research in tourism: A review of theory.” In K. Markwell (ed.), Animals and tourism. understanding diverse relationships. Channel View Publications. 27-43.
    Fennell, D. A. and D. B. Weaver (1997). “Vacation farms and ecotourism in Saskatchewan, Canada.” J Rural Studies 13(4): 467-475.
    Fennell, D.A. & Dowling, R.K. (ed) 2003 Ecotourism Policy and Planning, CABI Publishing, UK
    Fennell, D.A.(2012). Tourism and Animal Ethics Leisure, Tourism and Crime. London ; New York : Routledge
    Ferguson, S., Taylor, M., Born, E., Rosing‐Asvid, A., & Messier, F. (1999). Determinants of home range size for polar bears (Ursus maritimus). ‎Ecol. Lett. 2(5), 311-318.
    Fernandez, E., & Timberlake, W. (2008). Mutual benefits of research collaborations between zoos and academic institutions. Zoo Biol. 27, 470-487. [captive wildlife]
    Fernandez, E., J.; Tamborski, M., A.; Pickens, S., R. and Timberlake, W. (2009). “Animal– visitor interactions in the modern zoo: Conflicts and interventions.” Applied Animal Behaviour Science 120, 1–8. [captive wildlife]
    Fernandez, L., Bashaw, M., Sartor, R., Bouwens, N., Maki, T. (2008). Tongue twisters: feeding enrichment to reduce oral stereotypy in giraffe. Zoo Biol. 27, 200-212.
    Ferreira, S., & Harmse, A. (2014). Kruger National Park: Tourism development and issues around the management of large numbers of tourists. Journal of Ecotourism, 13(1), 16–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2014.925907
    Fiallo, E. A., & Jacobson, S. K. (1995). Local communities and protected areas: attitudes of rural residents towards conservation and Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Environmental Conservation, 22(3), 241-249.
    Figgis, P. J. (1999). Case Study 2: the national “issues in protected area policy in Australia”. Ecotourism: Impacts, Potentials and Possibilities. S. Wearing and J. Neil. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann: 94-103.
    Filion, F., J. P. Foley, et al. (1994). The Economics of Global Ecotourism. Protected Area Economics and Policy-Linking Consercation and Sustainable Development. M. Munasinghe and J. A. McNeeley. Washington D.C., The World Bank.
    Finnegan, S., Sharples, S., Johnston, T., & Fulton, M. (2018). The carbon impact of a UK safari park – Application of the GHG protocol using measured energy data. Energy, 153, 256–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.04.033
    Fischer, C., Muchapondwa, E., & Sterner, T. (2011). A bio-economic model of community incentives for wildlife management under CAMPFIRE. Environmental and Resource Economics, 48(2), 303.
    Fish and Wildlife Recreation and Allocation Branch and British Columbia Ministry of Environment Land & Parks. (2003). “Wildlife Viewing.” Retrieved 30/4/2003, 2003.
    Fisher, F., M. Hockings, et al. (1998). “Recreational impacts on waders on Fraser Island.” The Sunbird 28(1): 1-11.
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada/National Marine Fisheries Service (?). Be whale wise: Guidelines for watching marine wildlife, Fisheries and Oceans Canada/National Marine Fisheries Service.
    Fleming, P. J. S., Corbett, L., Harden, R. H., & Thomson, P. C. (2001). Managing the Impacts of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs. Bureau of Rural Sciences. Canberra.
    Fogg, G. E. (?). Park Planning Guidelines: 3rd Edition, National Recreation & Park Association: 160-165.
    Foin, T. C. (1977). Visitor impacts on National Parks: The Yosemite ecological impact study. California, Institute of Ecology, University of California: 68.
    Foin, T. C., E. O. Garton, et al. (1977). “Quantitative studies of visitor impacts on environments of Yosemite National Park, California, and their implications for park management policy.” Journal of Environmental Management 5: 1-22.
    Fontenot, B., Wilkes, M., Lynch, C. (2006). Effects of outdoor housing on self-injurious and stereotypic behavior in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci. 45, 35-43. [captive wildlife]
    Forbes, B. C. (1992). “Tundra disturbance studies, I: Long-term effects of vehicles on species richness and biomass.” Environmental Conservation 19: 48-58.
    Force, A., Manuel-Navarrete, D., & Benessaiah, K. (2018). Tourism and transitions toward sustainability: Developing tourists’ pro-sustainability agency. Sustainability Science, 13(2), 431–445. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-017-0448-y
    Fox, A. (1982). Consvervation Versus Recreation: National Parks at the Crossroads. Australian Science Magazine: 16-19.
    Fox, M. (1968) Abnormal behavior in animals. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA.
    Fox, M. & Fox, O. (2005). Discovering Australia’s fragile wildlife, Curriculum Corporation, Carlton South, Vic.
    Franklin, A. (2002). Trout Tourism: Investigating the growth potential for international and national trout tourists to Tasmania. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-89.
    Fraser, D. (2009). “Assessing animal welfare: different philosophies, different scientific approaches.” Zoo Biology 28 (6), 507-518.
    Fraser, D. & Dubois, S. (2013) A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation, Animals, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 978-994.
    Fredline, E., & Faulkner, B. (2001). International market analysis of wildlife tourism. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Fredline, L. (Elizabeth). (2007). An analysis of the domestic wildlife tourism market in Australia. Sustainable Tourism CRC.
    Fredline, L. and B. Faulkner (2001). International Market Analysis of Wildlife Tourism. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-76.
    Freese, C. H. (1998). Wild Species as Commodities, Managing Markets and Ecosystems for Sustainability. Washington, D.C., Island Press.
    French, J., Carp, S. (2016). Early-life social adversity and developmental processes in nonhuman primates. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 7, 40-46.
    Frew, K. N., Peterson, M. N., Sills, E., & Moorman, C. E. (2018). Market and nonmarket valuation of North Carolina’s tundra swans among hunters, wildlife watchers, and the public. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 42(3), 478–487. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.915
    Friesen, L. E., P. F. J. Eagles, et al. (1995). “Effects of residential development on forest-dwelling neotropical migrant songbirds.” Conservation Biology 9(6): 1408-1414.
    Fry, P. (1984). Farm Tourism In Western Australia. Perth, Dept of the Premier and Cabinet.
    Fulton, G. R. (2002). “A Tourism Classification of Australian Wildlife: A review.” Pacific Conservation Biology 8(2): 142.
    Fulton, G. R. (2002). “Birdwatching Tourism In Australia: A review.” Pacific Conservation Biology 8(2): 142-143.
    Fulton, G. R. (2002). “Positive Effects of Wildlife Toursim on Wildlife: A review.” Pacific Conservation Biology 8(2): 141.
    Fulton, G. R. (2002). “The Negative Effects of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife: A review.” Pacific Conservation Biology 8(1): 67.
    Fulton, G. R. and H. A. Ford (2001). “The conflict between animal welfare and conservation.” Pacific Conservation Biology 7(3): 152-153.
    Gaalema, D. (2011). Visual discrimination and reversal learning in rough-necked monitor lizards (Varanus rudicollis). J. Comp. Psychol. 125(246-249.
    Gallagher, A. J., & Hammerschlag, N. (2011). Global shark currency: The distribution, frequency, and economic value of shark ecotourism. CURRENT ISSUES IN TOURISM, 14(8), 797–812. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2011.585227
    Gallagher, Austin J., & Huveneers, C. P. M. (2018). Emerging challenges to shark-diving tourism. Marine Policy, 96, 9–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.07.009
    Gandiwa, E. (2011). Wildlife tourism in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe: Opportunities for wildlife viewing. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13(1).
    Gardner, R. J., Flores, E. N., Mmopelwa, G., & Strzepek, M. K. (2007). The value of wildlife-viewing tourism as an incentive for conservation of biodiversity in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Development Southern Africa, 24(3), 409–423.
    Garner, J., Mason, G., Smith, R. (2003). Stereotypic route-tracing in experimentally caged songbirds correlates with general behavioural disinhibition. Anim. Behav. 66, 711-727. [captive wildlife]
    Garner, J., Mason, G.(2002). Evidence for a relationship between cage stereotypies and behavioural disinhibition in laboratory rodents. Behav. Brain Res. 136, 83-92. [captive wildlife]
    Garner, J., Meehan, C., Mench, J. (2003). Stereotypies in caged parrots, schizophrenia and autism: evidence for a common mechanism. Behav. Brain Res. 145, 125-134. [captive wildlife]
    Garner, J.(2008). Perseveration and stereotypy- systems-level insights from clinical psychology. In: Mason, G., Rushen, J., (Ed.), Stereotypic animal behaviour: fundamentals and applications to welfare. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 121-141.
    Garrod, G. D. and K. G. Willis (1996). “Estimating the benefits of environmental enhancement: a case study of the River Darent.” Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 39(2): 189-203.
    Gartside, D. (2001). Fishing Tourism: charter boat fishing. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-25.
    Gauthier, D. (1993). Chapter 6: Sustainable development, tourism and wildlife. Tourism and Sustainable Development: Monitoring, Planning, Managing. J. G. Nelson, R. Butler and G. Wall, Department of Geography Publications. Series No. 7: 97-109.
    Geldenhuys, L., & Merwe, P. V. D. (2014). The impact of Blue Flag status on tourist decision-making when selecting a beach. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 3(2).
    George, A. (1998). “The Killing Seas of Eden.” GEO Australasia 20(4): 36.
    Giese, M. (1996). “Effects of human activity on Adelie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae breeding success.” Biological Conservation 75: 157-164.
    Giese, M. (1998). “Guidelines for people approaching breeding groups of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).” Polar Record 34(191): 287-292.
    Giese, M. (2000). “Antarctic Tourism: Polar Wander.” Wingspan 10(1): 8-13.
    Giese, M. and M. Riddle (1999). “Disturbance of emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri chicks by helicopters.” Polar Biology 22: 366-371.
    Gill, R. B. (2002). Build an experience and they will come: Managing the biology of wildlife viewing for benefits to people and wildlife. Wildlife viewing: A management handbook, 218-253.
    Gillingham, S. and P. C. Lee (1999). “The impact of wildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of local people around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania.” Environmental Conservation 26(3): 218-228.
    Giongo, F. and J. Bosco-Nizeye A Study of Visitor Managment in the World’s National Parks and Protected Areas, TIES.
    Gleeson, J. and Gleeson, D. (2012) Reducing the Impacts of Development on Wildlife. CSIRO Publishing
    Gleeson, M. (1994). Catching tourists. Southern Fisheries: 18-19.
    Gnanapala, A. C. (2017). Destination marketing approaches for wildlife tourism. In Wilderness of Wildlife Tourism.
    Godfrey, A., and Kongmuang C. (2009). Distribution, Demography and Basic Husbandry of the Asian Elephant in the Tourism Industry in Northern Thailand. Gajah 30: 13–18.
    Godfrey, K. and J. Clarke (2000). The Tourism Development Handbook. London, Cassell.
    Goodall, D. W. (2000). “Environmental Management: the Precautionary Principle and Null Hypotheses.” Pacific Conservation Biology 5(2): 78-83.
    Goodall, J. (2018). Tourism, wildlife conservation and animal welfare. In Tourism and animal welfare (pp. 102–105). CAB International.
    Goodrich, J. M. and J. Berger (1994). “Winter recreation and hibernating black bears Ursus americanus.” Biological Conservation 67(2): 105-110.
    Goosem, M. (1997). Internal fragmentation: The effects of roads, highways, and powerline clearings on movements and mortality of rainforest vertebrates. Tropical Forest Remnants. Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities. W. F. Laurance and R. O. J. Bierregaard. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press: 241-255.
    Goosem, M. (2000). “Effects of tropical rainforest roads on small mammals: Edge changes in community composition.” Wildlife Research 27: 151-163.
    Goosem, M. and H. Marsh (1997). “Fragmentation of a small-mammal community by a powerline corridor through tropical rainforest.” Wildlife Research 24: 613-629.
    Gottlieb, D., Capitanio, J., McCowan, B. (2013). Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self‐biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal’s history, current environment, and personality. Am. J. Primatol. 75, 995-1008.
    Gottlieb, D., Maier, A., Coleman, K. (2015). Evaluation of environmental and intrinsic factors that contribute to stereotypic behavior in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 171, 184-191.
    Goudberg, N., M. Bonell, et al. (1991). Tropical Rainforest Research In Australia. Present Status and Future directions for the Institute of Tropical Rainforest Studies. Townsville, Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies: 33-37.
    Gowen, A. (2018). An Indian state banned pesticides. Tourism and wildlife flourished. Will others follow? The Washington Post (Online).
    Grandin T. (2018) My Reflections on Understanding Animal Emotions for Improving the Life of Animals in Zoos, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 21:sup1, 12-22, DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2018.1513843
    Granquist, S. M., & Sigurjonsdottir, H. (2014). The effect of land based seal watching tourism on the haul-out behaviour of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in Iceland. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 156, 85.
    Gray, D. (1986). “Koala Mania.” International Wildlife 16(3): 4-11.
    Gray, G. G. (1993). Chapters 4,5,6,7. Wildlife and People: The human dimensions of wildlife ecology. Chicago, University of Illinois Press: 249.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (1993). Encounter with Whales ’93. Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2000). Whale and Dolphin Conservation in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority: 1-72.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2002). Best Practice Dwarf Minke Whale Interactions, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority: 1.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2003). Bird Watching, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,: 1-2.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2003). Diving and Snorkelling, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,: 1-2.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2003). Dugong Watching, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,: 1-2.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2003). Reef Walking, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,: 1-2.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2003). Turtle Watching, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,: 1-2.
    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2003). Whale, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,: 1-3.
    Green, E., & Donnelly, R. (2003). Recreational scuba diving in Caribbean marine protected areas: do the users pay?. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 32(2), 140-145.
    Green, R. (2013). Reaching out to non-ecologists: Why I got involved in wildlife tourism. Journal of Ecotourism, 12(2), 107–111. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2013.788655
    Green, R. J. (2002). The tour operator’s dilemma: Keeping the customer happy while not disturbing the wildlife. Ecotourism Association of Australia Conference, Cairns, QLD.
    Green, R. J. (2013). Reaching out to non-ecologists: why I got involved in wildlife tourism, Journal of Ecotourism, DOI:10.1080/14724049.2013.788655
    Green, R. J. (2013). Wildlife Tourism: A Handbook for Guides, Tour Operators, Job-seekers and Business Start-ups [Kindle Edition: Amazon.com]
    Green, R. J. and Jones, D. N. (2010). Practices, need and attitudes of bird-watching tourists in Australia. Sustainable Tourism CRC report.
    Green, R. J. and K. Higginbottom (2001). Negative Effects of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-205.
    Green, R. J., & Higginbottom, K. B. (2002). Negative Effects of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife. Gold Coast.
    Green, R. J., Higginbottom, K. (2000). “The effects of non-consumptive wildlife tourism on free-ranging wildlife: a review.” Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 183-97.
    Green, R. J., K. Higginbottom, et al. (2000). A tourism classification of Australian wildlife. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Green, R., & Higginbottom, K. (2001). The negative effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Green, R., Giese, M., (2004). Negative Effects of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife-Chapter 5. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 81-97.
    Green, R., Higginbottom, K., Northrope, C. (2002). A tourism classification of Australian wildlife, CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast, Qld.
    Greenburg, N. (1995). Ethologically informed design in husbandry and research. In: Warwick, C., Frye, F., Murphy, J., (Ed.), The care and welfare of captive reptiles. Chapman Hall, London, UK, pp. 239-262.
    Greenwell, P., & Montrose, V. (2017). The gray matter: Prevention and reduction of abnormal behavior in companion gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus). J. Vet. Behav. 18, 76-83.
    Greenwood, V., Smith, E., Goldsmith, A., Cuthill, I., Crisp, L., Walter-Swan, M., Bennett, A. (2004). Does the flicker frequency of fluorescent lighting affect the welfare of captive European starlings? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 86, 145-159.
    Gregory, W. (2014). Latin American Consumptive Wildlife Tourism: An Analysis of the Industry as a Tool for Development.
    Greig-Smith, P. W. (1981). “Responses to disturbance in relation to flock size in foraging groups of barred ground doves Geopelia straita.” Ibis 123: 101-106.
    Griffiths, M. and C. P. Van Schaik (1993). “The impact of human traffic on the abundance and activity periods of Sumatran rain forest wildlife.” Conservation Biology 7(3): 623-626.
    Grifone, R. and B. Weiler (1991). The learning experience on educational travel programs: a case study of Travel Learn Australia. Ecotourism: incorporating The Global Classroom Conference, Brisbane, BTR.
    Griggio, C. (2015). Looking for Experience at Vittangi Moose Park in Swedish Lapland. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(3), 244–265. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2014.999015
    Groom, M. J., Podolsky, R. D., & Munn, C. A. (1991). Tourism as a sustained use of wildlife: A case study of Madre de Dios, Southeastern Peru. Tourism as a Sustained Use of Wildlife: A Case Study of Madre de Dios, Southeastern Peru., 393–412.
    Groom, M. J., R. D. Podolsky, et al. (1991). Tourism as a sustained use of wildlife: a case study of Madre de Dios, southeastern Peru. Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation. Chicago, USA, University of Chicago Press: 393-412.
    Grossberg, R., A. Treves, et al. (2003). “The incidental ecotourist: measuring visitor impacts on endangered howler monkeys at a Belizean archaeological site.” Environmental Conservation 30(1): 40-51.
    Group, E. W. (1995). Ecotourism as a Conservation Instrument? Making conservation projects more attractive. Cologne, Weltforum Verlag.
    Group, W. B., & Fund, W. W. (2014). Getting Financed.
    Gusset, M., & Dick, G. (2011). “The global reach of zoos and aquariums in visitor numbers and conservation expenditures.” Zoo Biology 30(5), 566-569.
    Gutzwiller, K. J., E. A. Kroese, et al. (1997). “Does human intrusion alter the seasonal timing of avain song during breeding periods?” The Auk 114(1): 55-67.
    Gutzwiller, K. J., H. A. Marcum, et al. (1998). “Bird tolerance to human intrusion in Wyoming montane forests.” The Condor 100: 519-527.
    Gutzwiller, K. J., K. L. Clements, et al. (1998). “Vertical distributions of breeding-season birds: is human intrusion influential?” Wilson Bulletin 110(4): 497-503.
    Gutzwiller, K. J., R. T. Wiedenmann, et al. (1994). “Effects of human intrusion on song occurence and singing.” The Auk 111(1): 28-37.
    Gutzwiller, K.J., Knight, R.L. (1995). Wildlife and Recreationists Coexistence through Management and Research. Washington, D.C. : Island
    Hall, C. M. (1992). “Tourism in Antarctica: Activities, Impacts and Management.” Journal of Travel Research 30(4).
    Hall, C. M. (1992). Wasteland to World Heritage – Preserving Australia’s Wilderness. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press.
    Hall, C. M. (1995). Introduction to Tourism in Australia: Impacts, Planning and Development. Melbourne, Longman Australia Pty Ltd.
    Hall, C. M. and S. McArthur (1998). Integrated Heritage Management: Principles and Practice. London, The Stationery Office.
    Ham, S. H. (1992). Chapter 1: What is interpretation? Environmental Interpretation – A Practical Guide for people with Big Ideas and Small Budgets. S. H. Ham. Golden, Colorado, North American Press: 3-4.
    Hamilton, J. (1995). How a zoo became not a zoo. Ecotourism and Nature-Based Tourism: Taking the next steps. Ecotourism Association of Australia. H. Richins, J. Richardson and A. Crabtree. Brisbane, Ecotourism Association of Australia: 256-259.
    Hammitt, W. E. and D. N. Cole (1987). Chapter 4: Wildlife. Wildland Recreation: Ecology and Management. W. E. Hammitt and D. N. Cole. New York, John Wiley and Sons: 77-102.
    Hammitt, W. E. and D. N. Cole (1987). Visitor Management: CAMPFIRE Management Alternatives. Wildlife Recreation: ecology and management. New York, John Wiley & Sons: 276-280.
    Hammitt, W. E., J. N. Dulin, et al. (1993). “Derterminants of quality wildlife viewing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 21(1): 21-30.
    Hand, J. L. (1980). “Human disturbance in western gull (Larus occidentalis livens) colonies and possible amplificatioin by interspecific predation.” Biological Conservation 18: 59-63.
    Hanon, O., Chaussade, E., Gueranger, P., & Gruson, E. (2016). Patient-Reported Treatment Satisfaction with Rivaroxaban for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation. A French Observational Study, the SAFARI Study. PloS One, 11(12), e0166218.
    Hanson, J. H., Schutgens, M., & Baral, N. (2019). What explains tourists’ support for snow leopard conservation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal? Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 24(1), 31–45. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2019.1534293
    Harlow, H., (1964). Early social deprivation and later behavior in the monkey. In: Abrams, A., Gurner, H., Toman, J., (Ed.), Unfinished tasks in the behavioral sciences. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA, pp. 154-173.
    Harris, L. K., R. H. Gimblett, et al. (1995). “Multiple use management: Using a GIS model to understand conflicts between recreationalists and sensitive wildlife.” Society and Natural Resources 8: 559-572.
    Harris, R. and N. Leiper, Eds. (1995). Sustainable Tourism: An Australian perspective. Sydney, Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Hart, P. D. (1988). “Bound for 60 South – Taxes, Tips and Transfers Included: The Growth of Antarctic Tourism.” Oceanus 31(Summer): 93-100.
    Harvey, K. (1999). Ensuring the sustainability of Northern Territory tourism. Intuition. May: 9.
    Harvey, N. (1999). The Impact of Ecotourism Upon the Well-Being of Woylies at Dryandra Woodland Village. Zoology Department. Perth, University of WA: 91.
    Haskell, P. J., McGowan, A., Westling, A., & Méndez-Jiménez, A. (2015). Monitoring the effects of tourism on whale shark Rhincodon typus behaviour in Mozambique. Oryx, 49(3), 492. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313001257
    Haspeslagh, M., Stevens, J., De Groot, E., Dewulf, J., Kalmar, I., Moons, C. (2013). A survey of foot problems, stereotypic behaviour and floor type in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in European zoos. ‎Anim. Welf. 22, 437-443. [captive wildlife, mammals]
    Hawkins, P. (2010). The welfare implications of housing captive wild and domesticated birds. In: Duncan, I., Hawkins, P., (Ed.), The welfare of domestic fowl and other captive birds. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 53-102.
    Hay, M. J. and K. E. McConnell (1979). “An Analysis of particpation in Nonconsumptive Wildlife Recreation.” Land Economics 55(4): 460-470.
    Heath, R. A. (1992). “Wildlife-based tourism in Zimbabwe: an outline of its development and future policy options.” Geographical Journal of Zimbabwe 23: 59-78.
    Hediger, H., (1950). Wild animals in captivity. Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, UK.
    Heinen, J. T. (1993). “Park-people relations in Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal: a socio-economic analysis.” Environmental Conservation 20(1): 25-34.
    Heinen, J. T. and B. Kattel (1992). “Parks, people and conservation: A review of management issues in Nepal’s protected areas.” Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary studies 14(1): 49-84.
    Hemson, G., Maclennan, S., Mills, G., Johnson, P. and Macdonald, D. (2009). “Community, lions, livestock and money: A spatial and social analysis of attitudes to wildlife and the conservation value of tourism in a human-carnivore conflict in Botswana.” Biological Conservation 142 (11): 2718-2725
    Hemson, G., Maclennan, S., Mills, G., Johnson, P., & Macdonald, D. (2009). Community, lions, livestock and money: A spatial and social analysis of attitudes to wildlife and the conservation value of tourism in a human–carnivore conflict in Botswana. Biological Conservation, 142(11), 2718–2725.
    Henry, W. R. (1982). Amboseli Park: Kenya – problems of planning and resource management. Studies in Tourism and Wildlife Parks Conservation. T. V. Sing and J. Kaur. New Delhi, Metropolitan Book Company: 34-46.
    Herath, G. (1996). “Ecotourism Development in Australia.” Annals of Tourism Research 24(2): 442-446.
    Higginbottom, K, Scott, N. (2008). Strategic planning of Wildlife Tourism in Australia. Journal of Ecotourism, vol. 7, issue 2, p102 – 115.
    Higginbottom, K. (2001). Status assessment of wildlife tourism in Australia. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Higginbottom, K. (2002). “Principles for sustainable wildlife tourism, with particular reference to dolphin-related boat tours in Port Phillip Bay.” 1-11.
    Higginbottom, K. (2004). Managing Impacts of Wildlife tourism on Wildlife – Chapter 11. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 211-229.
    Higginbottom, K. (2004). Wildlife Tourism: An introduction – Chapter 1. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 1-11.
    Higginbottom, K. (2004). Wildlife Tourism: impacts, management and planning, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd.
    Higginbottom, K. (2004). Wildlife tourism. Common Ground Publishing [for] CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Higginbottom, K., & Scott, N. (2004). Wildlife tourism: A strategic destination analysis. Wildlife Tourism: Planning, Impacts and Management, Edited by K. Higginbottom. Melbourne: Common Ground and Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, 253–77.
    Higginbottom, K., A. Tribe, et al. (2003). “Contributions of wildlife tourism to conservation.” Nature-based Tourism, Environment and Land Management: 181-195.
    Higginbottom, K., Green, R., & Northrope, C. (2001). Positive effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Higginbottom, K., Green, R., Northrope, C., (2003). “A Framework for Managing the Negative Impacts of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8(1): 1-24.
    Higginbottom, K., K. Rann, et al. (2001). Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia – an Overview. Part I: Descriptive Overview of Wildlife Tourism. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-115.
    Higginbottom, K., K. Rann, et al. (2001). Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia – an Overview. Part II: Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-115.
    Higginbottom, K., Northrope, C. and Green, R. J. 2001. The Positive Effects of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series No. 6, Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia Series, CRC for Sustainable Tourism
    Higginbottom, K., Northrope, C., Croft, D.B., Hill, B., Fredline, L. (2004). “The role of kangaroos in Australian Tourism.” Australian Mammalogy 26: 23-32.
    Higginbottom, K., R. J. Green, et al. (2003). “A framework for managing the negative impacts of wildlife tourism on wildlife.” Human Dimensions in Wildlife 8(1): 1-24.
    Higginbottom, K., R. J. Green, et al. (2003). “Evaluation of Organised Tourism Involving Wild Kangaroos.” 1-152.
    Higginbottom, K., Scott, N., (2004). Wildlife tourism: A Strategic Destination Analysis-Chapter 13. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 253-277.
    Higginbottom, K., Tribe, A., (2004). Contributions of Wildlife Tourism to Conservation -Chapter 6. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 99-123.
    Higham, J. (1994). Nature tourism and the Royals of Taiaroa Head. Australian National Tourism Research and Education Conferences, Canberra: Bureau of Tourism Research.
    Higham, J. (2007). Critical issues in ecotourism : Understanding a complex tourism phenomenon. Amsterdam: Elsevier, Butterworth Heinemann.
    Higham, J. & Bejder, L. (2008). Managing Wildlife-based Tourism: Edging Slowly Towards Sustainability? Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 75-83.
    Higham, J. and A. Carr (2002). “Ecotourism Visitor Experiences in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Challenging the Environmental Values of Visitors in Pursuit of Pro-environmental Behaviour.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 10(4): 277-294.
    Higham, J. and Shelton, E. (2011). “Tourism and wildlife habituation: Reduced population fitness or cessation of impact?” Tourism Management 32 (6): 1290-1298
    Higham, J. E. S. (1998). “Tourists and albatrosses: the dynamics of tourism at the Northern Royal Albatross Colony, Taiaroa Head, New Zealand.” Tourism Management 19(6): 521-531
    Higham, J. E. S. (2012). Wildlife social learning should inform sustainable tourism management. Animal Conservation, 15: 438–439
    Higham, J. E. S., Bejder, L., Allen, S. J., & Corkeron, P. J. (2016). Managing whale-watching as a non-lethal consumptive activity. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 24(1), 73–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2015.1062020
    Higham, J., Carr, A.M., (2003). “Sustainable Wildlife Tourism in New Zealand: An Analysis of Visitor Experience.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8(1): 25-36.
    Higham, J., Luck, M (2007). Marine Wildlife and Tourism Management Insights from the Natural and Social Sciences. Wallingford: Wallingford : CABI.
    Higham, J.E.S. (2012). Wildlife social learning should inform sustainable tourism management, Animal Conservation, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 438-439.
    Higham, James E. S., & Bejder, L. (2008). Managing wildlife-based tourism? Edging slowly towards sustainability? Current Issues in Tourism, 11(1), 75–83. https://doi.org/10.2167/cit345.0
    Higham, James E. S., & Carr, A. M. (2003). Sustainable wildlife tourism in new zealand: An analysis of visitor experiences. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8(1), 25–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200390180127
    Higham, James E. S., & Shelton, E. J. (2011). Tourism and wildlife habituation. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1290–1298.
    Hill, B., Arthurson, T., Chalip, L. (2001). Kangaroos in the Marketing of Australia: potentials and practice. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-93.
    Hill, D., D. Hockin, et al. (1997). “Bird disturbance: improving the quality and utility of disturbance research.” Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 275-288.
    Hill, J., Curtin, S., & Gough, G. (2014). Understanding tourist encounters with nature: A thematic framework. Tourism Geographies, 16(1), 68–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2013.851265
    Hill, K. A. (1994). “Politicians, Farmers, and Ecologists: Commercial Wildlife Ranching and the Politics of Land in Zimbabwe.” Journal of African and Asian Studies 29(3-4): 226-247.
    Hill, S. (2009). Do gorillas regurgitate potentially-injurious stomach acid during ‘regurgitation and reingestion?’. ‎Anim. Welf. 18, 123-127.
    Hill, W., Pickering, C. (2002). “Regulation of summer tourism in Australian mountain conservation reserves.” Gold Coast, CRC Sustaniable Tourism: 1-43.
    Hilling‐Smith, R., Chong, A., & Cox, S. (2017). Mitral paravalvular leak closure by antegrade percutaneous approach using amplatzer PFO closure device. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 90(2), E62–E67. https://doi.org/10.1002/ccd.26417
    HLA Consultants and The ARA Consulting Group Inc. (1995). Ecotourism – Nature/Adventure/Culture: Alberta and British Columbia Market Demand Assessment. British Columbia, Canadian Heritage.
    HLA Consultants Canada and GAIA Consultants Canada and Cottonwood Consultants (1990). Marketing watchable wildlife tourism in Alberta (markets/opportunities/marketing). Edmonton, Canada, Alberta Forestry, Lands & Wildlife.
    Hoarau, H., & Kline, C. (2014). Science and industry: Sharing knowledge for innovation. Annals of Tourism Research, 46, 44–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2014.01.005
    Hockin, D., M. Ounsted, et al. (1992). “Examination of the effects of disturbance on birds with reference to its importance in ecological assessments.” Journal of Environmental Management 36: 253-286.
    Hogan, L. A. and Tribe, A. (2007) Prevalence and cause of stereotypic behaviour in common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) residing in Australian zoos. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 105: 180–191
    Holden, A & Fennell, D (ed) 2013 The Routledge Handbook of Tourism and the Environment, Routledge, New York.
    Holden, A 2008, Environment and Tourism, 2nd edn, Routledge, New York.
    Holechek, J., & Valdez, R. (2018). Wildlife Conservation on the Rangelands of Eastern and Southern Africa: Past, Present, and Future. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 71(2), 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rama.2017.10.005
    Honey, M. (1999). Chapter 4: The Galapagos Islands: Evolution and Ecotourism. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? M. Honey. Washington, Island Press: 111, 114-115.
    Honey, M. (1999). Chapter 5: Costa Rica: On the Beaten Path. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? M. Honey. Washington, Island Press: 166-169.
    Honey, M. (1999). Chapter 9: Kenya: Experiments, Foreign Aid, and Private Reserves. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? M. Honey. Washington, Island Press: 295-296.
    Honey, M. (1999). Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? Washington, Island Press.
    Horwich, R. H., D. Murray, et al. (1993). Ecotourism and community development: a view from Belize. Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers – Volume 1. K. Lindberg and D. E. Hawkins. Vermont, The Ecotourism Society. 1: 52-168.
    Hosey, G., Melfi, V., Pankhurst, S. (2009). Zoo animals: behaviour, management and welfare. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
    How much is wildlife tourism affecting the animals it targets? (2018). MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN, 133, 1017.
    Howard, P. and D. Jones (2000). For the Love of Fur and Feathers: Wildlife feeding in urban settings in SEQ – preliminary findings. Brisbane, Griffith University: 1-8.
    Howes, L., Scarpaci, C., & Parsons, E. C. M. (2012). Ineffectiveness of a marine sanctuary zone to protect burrunan dolphins (Tursiops australis sp.nov.) from commercial tourism in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. Journal of Ecotourism, 11(3), 188–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2012.713362
    Hoyt, E. (1993). Saving whales by watching them. New Scientist. 138: 45-46.
    Hoyt, E. (2000). Whale Watching 2000: Worldwide Tourism Numbers, Expenditures, and Expanding Socioeconomic Benefits. Crowborough, UK, International Fund for Animal Welfare.
    Hudspeth, T. R. (1998). Developing partnerships for watchable wildlife and ecotourism in Island Pond, Vermont. The 1998 National Interpreters Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska, National Association for Interpretation.
    Huey, R. (1991). Physiological consequences of habitat selection. Am. Nat. 137, S91-S115.
    Hughes, B., Duncan, I. (1988). Behavioural needs: Can they be explained in terms of motivational models? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 19, 352-355.
    Hughes, B., Duncan, I. (1988). The notion of ethological ‘need’, models of motivation and animal welfare. Anim. Behav. 36, 1696-1707.
    Hughes, K, Packer, J, Ballantyne, R. (2011). Using Post-Visit Action Resources to Support Family Conservation Learning Following a Wildlife Tourism Experience. Environmental Education Research, vol. 17(3), 307-328
    Hughes, K. (1991). “Tourist Satisfaction: A Guided “Cultural” Tour in North Queensland.” Australian Psychologist 26(3): 166-171.
    Hughes, K. (2011). Designing Post-Visit Action Resources for Families Visiting Wildlife Tourism Sites. Visitor Studies, 14(1), 66-83.
    Hughes, K. (2013). Measuring the impact of viewing wildlife: Do positive intentions equate to long-term changes in conservation behaviour? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(1), 42-60.
    Hughes, M., Newsome, D. and Macbeth, J. (2005) Case study: visitor perceptions of captive wildlife tourism in a Western Australian natural setting. Journal of Ecotourism 4: 73-91
    Hughes, M., Newsome, D., Macbeth, J. (2005). Case Study: Visitor Perceptions of Captive Wildlife Tourism in a Western Australian Natural Setting.Journal of Ecotourism, Volume 4:2 (2005).
    Hughes, P. (2001). “Animals, values and tourism – structural shifts in UK dolphin tourism provision.” Tourism Management 22: 321-329.
    Hughes, P. (2001a). Animals, values and tourism — structural shifts in UK dolphin tourism provision. Tourism Management, 22(4), 321–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00070-4
    Hughes, P. (2001b). Animals, values and tourism—structural shifts in UK dolphin tourism provision. Tourism Management, 22(4), 321–329.
    Hulbert, I. A. R. (1990). “The reponse of ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea to tourist activity in the Royal Chitwan National Park of Nepal.” Biological Conservation 52: 113-123.
    Hulme, M. (2015). Attributing weather extremes to ‘climate change’: A review. In Progress in Physical Geography (Vol. 38, pp. 499–511).
    Hummelbrunner, R. and E. Miglbauer (1994). “Tourism Promotion and Potential in Peripheral Areas: The Austrian Case.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 2(1&2): 41-50.
    Hundloe, T. and C. Hamilton (1997). Koalas and tourism: An economic evaluation, The Australian Institute: 1-49.
    Hunter Jr, M. L. (1990). Wildlife, forests, and forestry. Principles of managing forests for biological diversity. Prentice Hall.
    Hussen, A. M. (1999). Principles of Environmental Economics. London, Routledge.
    Huveneers, C., Apps, K., Becerril-García, E. E., & Becerril-García, E. E. (2018). Future Research Directions on the “Elusive” White Shark. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00455
    Huveneers, C., Rogers, P. J., Beckmann, C., & Semmens, J. M. (2013). The effects of cage-diving activities on the fine-scale swimming behaviour and space use of white sharks. Marine Biology, 160(11), 2863–2875. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-013-2277-6
    Huveneers, C., Rogers, P., Beckmann, C., Semmens, B.B., Seuront, L. (2013). The Effects of Cage-diving Activities on the Fine-scale Swimming Behaviour and Space Use of White Sharks.
    Huxley, T. and J. M. Fladmark (1994). Where the shoe hurts: the ecological impacts of tourism. Cultural tourism: papers presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1994. London, UK, Donhead Publishing Ltd: 179-197.
    Hvenegaard, G. T. (2006). A Review of: “Book Reviews Karen Higginbottom (Ed.). Wildlife Tourism: Impacts, Management and Planning.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(1), 71–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200500471025
    Hvenegaard, G.T. 2013. Wildlife festivals inn Australia: Characteristics, purposes and conservation potential. Australasian Parks and Leisure 16(1)
    Hvenegaard, G.T., Butler, J.R., Krystofiak D.K., (1989). “Economic Values of Bird Watching at Point Pelee National Park, Canada.” Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp 5260531. Allen Press.
    Ibrahim, M. A., Jerry, A. N., & Khalil, A. I. (2018). Effect of salt stress on some chemicals characteristics of callus for three cultivars of potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.). Advances in Agriculture & Botanics, 10(2), 87–96.
    Ikuta, L. A. and D. T. Blumstein (2003). “Do fences protect birds from human disturbance?” Biological Conservation 112: 447-452.
    Imansyah, M. J., Jessop, T. S., Ciofi, C., & Akbar, Z. (2008). Ontogenetic differences in the spatial ecology of immature Komodo dragons. Journal of Zoology, 274(2), 107-115.
    Inman, C., Mesa, N., Oleas, R., & de los Santos, J. J. (1998). Impacts on developing countries of changing production and consumption patterns in developed countries: The case of ecotourism in Costa Rica. San Jose: INCAE.
    Inspiring Place Pty Ltd (2004). Tasmanian Wildlife Tourism Strategy. Background Report. Hobart, TAS.
    International Resources Group (1992). Ecotourism: a viable alternative for sustainable management of natural resources in Africa. Washington, Agency for International Development Bureau of Africa: 92.
    International Whaling Commision (2002). International Whaling Commmission’s general principles for whale watching, WWF Arctic Programme: 1-2.
    Is social media to blame for unethical wildlife tourism? For Asia’s endangered animals, internet fame has a dark side. (2019). South China Morning Post (Online).
    Isaacs, J. C. (2000). “The limited potential of ecotourism to contribute to wildlife conservation.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1): 61-69.
    Isaacs, R. and T. Dalton (1992). The Australian Guide to Whale Watching. Sydney, Australia, Weldon Publishing.
    IUCN (1993). Parks for Life: Report of the IVth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN.
    Jaaksin, R. (1997). “Exploring the Epistemology of Ecotourism.” Journal of Applied Recreation Research 22(1): 33-47.
    Jackson, S. M. (2003). “Standardizing captive-management manuals: Guidelines for terrestrial vertebrates.” International Zoo Yearbook 38: 229-243.
    Jacobs, M. H., & Harms, M. (2014). “Influence of interpretation on conservation intentions of whale tourists.” Tourism Management 42, 123-131.
    Jacobs, M. J. and C. A. Schloeder (1992). “Managing brown bears and wilderness recreation on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, USA.” Environmental Management 16(2): 249-254.
    Jacobson, S. K. and A. Figueroa Lopez (1994). “Biological impacts of ecotourism: tourists and nesting turtles in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 22(3): 414-419.
    Jacquemot, A., R. Reid, et al. (1986). The Importance of Wildlife to Canadians: The Recreational Economic Significance of Wildlife, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada.
    Jafari, J., & Xiao, H. (Eds.). (2016). Encyclopedia of tourism. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
    James, B. M. and P. S. Goodman (2000). Nature Tourism and Conservation – A World Bank Research Project. Cascades, South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service: 1-91.
    Jarrett, I. (1998). “The return of the whale. Big, beautiful and back.” GEO Australasia 20(4): 20-23.
    Jasper, J. M. and D. Nelkin (1997). The Animal Rights Crusade. Down to Earth Sociology, Introductory Readings. J. M. Henslin. New York, The Free Press.
    Jeke, A., Chanyandura, A., Muposhi, V. K., & Madhlamoto, D. (2019). Trophy Hunting and Possible Source-Sink Dynamics in Protected Areas: Insights from Trophy Size and Offtake Patterns in Southeast Zimbabwe. International Journal of Zoology, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1313927
    Jensen, P., Toates, F. (1993). Who needs ‘behavioural needs’? Motivational aspects of the needs of animals. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 37, 161-181.
    Jeppesen, J. L. (1987). “Impact of Human Dimensions on Home Range, Movements and Activity of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in a Danish Environment.” Danish Review of Game Biology 13(2): 1-38.
    Jervis Bay National Park (1996). ‘Please don’t feed them’, Ranger, no. 36, vol. 7, pp. 38-39
    Johannesen, A. B., & Skonhoft, A. (2005). Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: What can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish? Resource and Energy Economics, 27(3), 208–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2004.10.001
    Johns, B. G. (1996). “Responses of chimpanzees to habituation and tourism in the Kibale Forest, Uganda.” Biological Conservation 78(3): 257-262.
    Johnson, T. (2017). Seward, Alaska is a premier wildlife-tourism destination. The Toronto Star (Online).
    Jokinen, A., Asikainen, E., & Mäkinen, K. (2010). “Kävelyhaastattelu tapaustutkimuksen menetelmänä.” Sosiologia 47(4), 255-269.
    Jones, D. & Howard, P. 2001, ‘Feeding Wildlife: An indecent obsession’, Wildlife Australia, Vol 38, pp. 18 – 20
    Jones, D. and R. Buckley (2001). Birdwatching Tourism in Australia. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-37.
    Jones, D. N., & Buckley, R. (2001). Birdwatching tourism in Australia. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Jones, M. E. (2000). “Road upgrade, road mortality and remedial measures: impacts on a population of eastern quolls and Tasmanian devils.” Wildlife Research 27(3): 289-296.
    Jones, M., Mason, G., Pillay, N. (2011). Early environmental enrichment protects captive-born striped mice against the later development of stereotypic behaviour. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 135, 138-145. [captive wildlife]
    Joshua, J. and A. J. T. Johnsingh (1994). “Impact of biotic disturbances on the habitat and population of the endangered grizzled giant squirrel in South India.” Biological Conservation 68: 29-34.
    Kamal, K. B., A. Boug, et al. (1997). “Effects of food provisioning on the behaviour of commensal Hamadryas Baboons, Papio hamadryas, at Al Hada Mountain in Western Saudi Arabia.” Zoology in the Middle East 14: 11-22.
    Kamp, I., Scheepstra, A., Min, M., & Klarmann, L. (2018). Diagnostic value of far-IR water ice features in T Tauri disks. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201732368
    Kangaroo Island Sustainable Development Committee (1995). Kangaroo Island Sustainable Development Strategy 1995/6.
    Kangaroo Island Tourism Working Party (1991). Kangaroo Island Tourism Policy. Kangaroo Island.
    Kangas, P. (1995). “Economics of an ecotourism operation in Belize.” Environmental Management 19(5): 669-673.
    Karanth, K. K., DeFries, R., Srivathsa, A., & Sankaraman, V. (2012). Wildlife tourists in India’s emerging economy: Potential for a conservation constituency? Oryx, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003060531100086X
    Kaur, J., Singh, D. P., & Singh, T. (1982). Studies in tourism, wildlife parks conservation. Metropolitan.
    Kazmierow, B. J., G. J. Hickling, et al. (1999). Ecological and human dimensions of tourism-related wildlife disturbance: white herons at Waitangiroto, New Zealand, as a case study. ISSRM, Brisbane.
    KC, B. (2015). Examining Networks, Social Capital, and Social Influence among Wildlife Tourism Microentrepreneurs in Coastal North Carolina. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
    KC, B., Morais, D. B., Peterson, M. N., & Seekamp, E. (2019). Social network analysis of wildlife tourism microentrepreneurial network. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(2), 158–169. https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358417715679
    KC, B., Morais, D. B., Seekamp, E., & Smith, J. W. (2018). Bonding and Bridging Forms of Social Capital in Wildlife Tourism Microentrepreneurship: An Application of Social Network Analysis. Sustainability, 10(2), 315. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020315
    KC, B., Morais, D. B., Smith, J. W., & Peterson, M. N. (2019). Using Social Network Analysis to Understand Trust, Reciprocity, and Togetherness in Wildlife Tourism Microentrepreneurship. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 109634801984079. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348019840794
    Kechington, R. A. (1989). “Tourism and the Galapagos Islands: the dilemma of conservation.” Environmental Conservation 16(3): 227-232.
    Keiper, R. (1969). Causal factors of stereotypies in caged birds. Anim. Behav. 17, 114-119.
    Keiper, R. (1970). Studies of stereotypy function in the canary (Serinus canarius). Anim. Behav. 18, Part 2, 353-357.
    Keller, V. (1989). “Variations in the response of great crested grebes Podiceps cristatus to human disturbance – a sign of adaptation?” Biological Conservation 49: 31-45.
    Keller, V. E. (1991). “Effects of human disturbance on eider ducklings Somateria mollissima in an estuarine habitat in Scotland.” Biological Conservation 58: 213-228.
    Kellert, S. R. (1985). “Birdwatching in American Society.” Leisure Sciences 7(3): 343-360.
    Kellert, S. R. (1986). Social and Perceptual Factors in the Preservation of Animal Species. The Preservation of Species: The Value of Biological Diversity. B. G. Norton. Princeton, Princeton University Press: 50-73.
    Kellert, S. R. (1993). “Values and Perceptions of Invertebrates.” Conservation Biology 7(4): 845-855.
    Kellert, S. R. and J. K. Berry (1980). Knowledge, affection and basic attitudes toward animals in American society. Conecticut, Yale University – School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.
    Kellert, S. R., A. J. Bath, et al. (1995). “Human Culture and Large Carnivore Conservation in North America.” Conservation Biology 10(4): 977-990.
    Kelley, J., Magurran, A., Macías García, C. (2006). Captive breeding promotes aggression in an endangered Mexican fish. Biol. Conserv. 133, 169-177.
    Kelly, J. D. (1997). Effective conservation in the twenty‐first century: the need to be more than a zoo. One organization’s approach. International Zoo Yearbook, 35(1), 1-14.
    Kelly, P., Stack, D., & Harley, J. (2013). A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the far eastern Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organisations, veterinarians and zoos. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 28, 163–6.
    Kennedy, A. (1997). Tourism no passport to great riches. Business Review Weekly v19(2): 58-59.
    Kenyon, S. and M. M. Duda (?). Big Game: The future of hunting in America, Dallas Safari Club.
    Kerlinger, P, “Birding Economics and Birder Demographics Studies as Conversation Tools“.
    Khan, B. N., Ahmad, R., Ali, Z., & Mehmood, S. (2018). Impact of different captive environmental conditions on behavior of african lions and their welfare at lahore zoo and safari zoo, Lahore. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 50(2), 523–531. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2018.50.2.523.531
    Kim, A. K., Keuning, J., Robertson, J., & KLEINDORFER, S. (2010). Understanding the birdwatching tourism market in Queensland, Australia. Anatolia, 21(2), 227-247.
    Kimmel, J. R. (1999). “Ecotourism as Environmental Learning.” The Journal of Environmental Education 30(2): 40-44.
    King, C. (1993). Environmental enrichment: Is it for birds? Zoo Biol. 12, 509-521.
    King, C. M. (2005). The handbook of New Zealand Mammals. England: Oxfor University Press.
    King, N. G. (2006). Tourism Based on Reintroductions of Threatened Mammals: Achieving Positive Conservation Outcomes. Griffith University.
    King, N., & Nair, V. (2013). Determining the wildlife value orientation (WVO): A case study of lower Kinabatangan, Sabah. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 5(4), 377–387. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-03-2013-0014
    Kinnear, J. (?). “Rock-Wallabies of Yardie Creek: Research and Tourism Go Hand in Hand.” Landscope: 36-37.
    Kisling, V. N. (2000). Zoo and aquarium history: Ancient animal collections to zoological gardens. CRC press.
    Kistler, C., Hegglin, D., Würbel, H., König, B. (2011). Preference for structured environment in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and checker barbs (Puntius oligolepis). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 135, 318-327.
    Klein, D. R. (1971). “Reaction of reindeer to obstructions and disturbance.” Science 173: 393-398.
    Klein, M. L., S. R. Humphrey, et al. (1995). “Effects of ecotourism on distribution of waterbirds in a wildlife refuge.” Conservation Biology 9(6): 1454-1465.
    Knight, J. (2009). Making wildlife viewable: Habituation and attraction. Society & Animals, 17(2), 167–184.
    Knight, J. (2010). “The ready-to-view wild monkey: The Convenience Principle in Japanese Wildlife Tourism.” Annals of Tourism Research 37 (3): 744-762.
    Knight, J. (2011). Herding Monkeys to Paradise How Macaque Troops Are Managed for Tourism in Japan. Leiden ; Boston : Brill.
    Knight, R. L. and D. N. Cole (1991). Effects of recreational activity on wildlife in wildlands. 56th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference.
    Knight, R. L. and K. J. Gutzwiller (1995). Wildlife and Recreationists: Coexistence through Management and Research. Washington, Island Press.
    Knight, R. L. and S. A. Temple (1986). “Methodological problems in studies of avian nest defence.” Animal Behaviour 34: 561-566.
    Knight, R. L. and S. A. Temple (1986). “Why does intensity of avian nest defence increase during the nesting cycle?” The Auk 103: 318-327.
    Knight, R. L., & Temple, D. N. (1995). Origin of wildlife responses to Recreationists. I Knight, RL & Gutzwiller, KJ (eds.): Wildlife and recreationists. Coexistence through mangement and research.
    Knight, R. L., D. P. Anderson, et al. (1991). “Reponses of an avian scavenging guild to anglers.” Biological Conservation 56: 195-205.
    Kobler, A. and M. Adamic (1997). “Brown Bears in Slovenia: Identifying locations for construction of wildlife bridges across highways.”
    Kontogeorgopoulos, N. (2009). Wildlife tourism in semi-captive settings: A case study of elephant camps in northern Thailand. Current Issues in Tourism, 12(5–6), 429–449. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500903042873
    Kozlowski, C., Bauman, K., Asa, C. (2015). Reproductive behaviour of the great hornbill (Buceros bicornis). Zoo Biol. 34, 328-334.
    KPMG Management Consulting (1996). Economic Significance of the Phillip Island Penguin Parade to the State of Victoria. Melbourne, VIC, Phillip Island Penguin Reserve Commitee of Management: 1-7.
    Kriwoken, L., Lennox, S., Ellis, C. (2002). Tasmanian Wildlife Tourism Inventory: developing an inventory of wildlife viewing opportunities. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-53.
    Krüll, F. (1976). Zeitgebers for animals in the continuous daylight of high arctic summer. Oecologia 24, 149-157.
    Kubo, T., Mieno, T., & Kuriyama, K. (2019). Wildlife viewing: The impact of money-back guarantees. Tourism Management, 70, 49–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.010
    Kundu, A. M. (1997). Guidelines for paddling with marine wildlife, Canoe and Kayak Magasine, Aug 1996/ British Columbia Parks and Recreation Commission, 1997: 1.
    Kuo, I. L. (2002). The effectiveness of environmental interpretation at resource‐Sensitive tourism destinations. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4(2), 87-101.
    Kuo, I.-L. (2002). The effectiveness of environmental interpretation at resource-Sensitive tourism destinations. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4(2), 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.362
    Kury, C. R. and M. Gochfield (1975). “Human interference and gull predation in cormorant colonies.” Biological Conservation 8: 23-24.
    Kuss, F. R., A. R. Graefe, et al. (1990). Visitor Impact Management: A Review of Research. Washington, National Parks and Conservation Association.
    Laarman, J. G. and H. M. Gregersen (1996). “Pricing policy in nature-based tourism.” Tourism Management 17(4): 247-254.
    Laarman, J. G. and R. R. Perdue (1989). “Science tourism in Costa Rica.” Annals of Tourism Research 16: 205-215.
    Laatu, S. (2013). “The development of animal welfare in Finland and how people perceive animal welfare: Case study: Animals in tourism: Zoos.” Vaasa University of Applied Sciences.
    Lacey, G. (2006). The Laminex Outback : The Safari Tourism Landscape in Regional Australia. National Centre for Australian Studies, Monash University.
    Laland, K., Williams, K. (1997). Shoaling generates social learning of foraging information in guppies. Anim. Behav. 53, 1161-1169.
    Lang, C., J. T. O’Leary, et al. (1996). Trip-Driven Attribute Segmentation of Australian Outbound Nature Travellers. Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Coffs Harbour.
    LaPage, W. F. (1967). America’s Self-Funding Park System: The New Hampshire Model. Protected Area Economics and Policy. M. Munasinghe and J. A. McNeely. Washington, D.C., World Conservation Union (IUCN): 117-120.
    Lapeyre, R. (2011). For what stands the “B” in the cbt concept: Community-based or community-biased tourism? Some insights from Namibia. Tourism Analysis, 16(2), 187–202. https://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2014.066
    Larm, M., Elmhagen, B., Granquist, S. M., & Brundin, E. (2018). The role of wildlife tourism in conservation of endangered species. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 23(3), 257.
    Latham, N., Mason, G. (2008). Maternal deprivation and the development of stereotypic behaviour. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 110, 84-108.
    Latham, N., Mason, G. (2010). Frustration and perseveration in stereotypic captive animals: Is a taste of enrichment worse than none at all? Behav. Brain Res. 211, 96-104.
    Lawrance, K. and K. Higginbottom (2002). Behavioural Responses of Dingoes to Tourists on Fraser Island. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-90.
    Lazenby, B. a. J., M. (1999). Wildlife Roadkill Strategy for Tasmania Stage 1: Preliminary Desktop Environmental Assessment and Scoping Study for Tasmanian Animal Road Kill. Hobart, Tasmania, Zoology Department, University of Tasmania: 1-49.
    Leave no Trace (?). 7 Principles of Leave no Trace. WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, Cottesloe, WA.
    Lee, D.-J., Kruger, S., Whang, M.-J., & Uysal, M. (2014). Validating a customer well-being index related to natural wildlife tourism. Tourism Management, 45, 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.04.002
    Lee, T. (1995). Chapter 17: Australis: soft adventure natural history tours. Sustainable tourism: an Australian perspective. R. Harris and N. Leiper. Sydney, Butterworth-Heinemann: 156 pages.
    Lemelin, R. H., & Dickson, G. (2012). Examining the potential for wildlife tourism in Eeyou Istchee, Northern Quebec, Canada. Northern Review, (35), 176.
    Lewis, A. and Newsome, D. (2003) Planning for stingray tourism at Hamelin Bay, Western Australia: the importance of stakeholder perspectives. International Journal of Tourism Research. 5: 331-346
    Lewis, D. M. and P. Alpert (1997). “Trophy hunting and wildlife conservation in Zambia.” Conservation Biology 11(1): 59-68.
    Li, D., Liu, Y., Sun, X., & Lloyd, H. (2017). Habitat-dependent changes in vigilance behaviour of Red-crowned Crane influenced by wildlife tourism. Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group), 7, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16907-z
    Liddle, M. J. (1997). Recreation Ecology: the Ecological Impact of Outdoor Recreation and Ecotourism. London, Chapman and Hall.
    Liggett, D., McIntosh, A., Thompson, A., Gilbert, N. and Storey, R. (2011). “From frozen continent to tourism hotspot? Five decades of Antarctic tourism development and management, and a glimpse into the future.” Tourism Management 32 (2): 357-366.
    Lilja Öqvist, E., Granquist, S. M., Burns, G. L., & Angerbjörn, A. (2018). Seal watching. Tourism in Marine Environments, 13(1), 1.
    Lime, D. W. (1989). Increasing opportunities for tourists to encounter wildlife: enhancing partnerships between public resource managers and the tourism industry. Using tourism and travel as a community and rural revitalisation strategy. Minnesota, Minnessota Extension Service, University of Minnesota: 188-191.
    Lindberg, K. (1991). Policies for maximising nature tourism’s ecological and economic benefits. Washington D.C, World Resources Institute.
    Lindberg, K. (1998). Environmental Damage Functions in Nature Tourism. Oslo, Norway, World Bank.
    Lindberg, K. and B. McKercher (1996). “Ecotourism: A Critical Overview.” Pacific Tourism Review 1: 65-79.
    Lindberg, K. and E. Halpenny (2001). Protected Area Visitor Fees: Summary. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-30.
    Lindberg, K. and J. Enriquez (1994). An Analysis of Ecotourism’s Economic Contribution to Conservation and Development in Belize. Belize, World Wildlife Fund (US) and Ministry of Tourism and the Environment (Belize): contents page, 4-10, 78-97.
    Lindberg, K., J. Enriquez, et al. (1996). “Ecotourism Questioned Case studies from Belize.” Annals of Tourism Research: 543-562.
    Lindberg, K., S. F. McCool, et al. (1996). “Rethinking Carrying Capcity.” Annals of Tourism Research.
    Lindenmayer, D. and K. Press (1992). Spotlighting Manual: Techniques and Ideas for Rangers and Group Leaders. Canberra, ACT Parks and Conservation Service.
    Lindsey, P. A., Alexander, R., Frank, L. G., Mathieson, A., & Romanach, S. S. (2006). Potential of trophy hunting to create incentives for wildlife conservation in Africa where alternative wildlife-based land uses may not be viable. Animal Conservation, 9(3), 283–291.
    Lippold, L. K. (1990). “Primate population decline at Cabo Blanco Absolute Nature Reserve, Costa Rica.” Brenesia 34: 145-152.
    Littlejohn, K. (2018). Personal Norms and Visitor Compliance: A Case Study of Wildlife Tourism in Manuel Antonio National Park, Costa Rica. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
    Liu, L., Zhao, Y., Wang, Q., & Cui, G. (2018). Preliminary investigation of wildlife using camera traps along tourism routes in Beijing Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve. Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 38(23), 8324–8335. https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201709191671
    Liu, T.-M. (2017). Testing on-site sampling correction in discrete choice experiments. Tourism Management, 60, 439–441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.01.004
    Liu, T.-M., & Yang, W. (2019). Using choice experiments to inform management of black-faced spoonbill reserve in Taiwan. Cogent Social Sciences, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2019.1611984
    Liu, Y., Zhang, W., & Tang, X. (2004). The Prospect of wildlife tourism. Journal of Forestry Research, 15(3), 243–245. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02911033
    Lockley, V. (1999). Interpretation Training Territory Style. The Human Factor in interpretation: Interpretation Australia Association National Conference, Hobart, Interpretation Australia Association.
    Lonsdale, W. M. and A. M. Lane (1994). “Tourist vehicles as vectors of weed seeds in Kakadu National Park, Northern Australia.” Biological Conservation 69: 277-283.
    Lorenz, K. (1961) King Solomon’s Ring. Translated by Marjorie Kerr Wilson. Methuen, London.
    Lott, D. F. and M. McCoy (1995). “Asian rhinos Rhinoceros unicornis on the run? Impact of tourist visits on one population.” Biological Conservation 73(1): 23-26.
    Lovelock, B. (2007). Tourism and the consumption of wildlife: Hunting, shooting and sport fishing.
    Lovelock, B. (Ed.). (2014). Tourism and the consumption of wildlife: Hunting, shooting and sport fishing. London: Routledge.
    Lovelock, B. (ed) (2008). “Tourism and The Consumption of Wildlife. Hunting. Shooting and Fishing.” Routledge, London
    Lowry, L. L. (Ed.). (2017). The SAGE international encyclopedia of travel and tourism. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
    Lubbe, B. A., du Preez, E. A., Douglas, A., & Fairer-Wessels, F. (2019). The impact of rhino poaching on tourist experiences and future visitation to National Parks in South Africa. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(1), 8–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2017.1343807
    Lubeck L. Kusler J. (1990). The Environmental Role of Tour Operators, Travel Agents, and Tourists in Ecotourism and Resource Conservation: A Collection of Papers[C]. East African Safari Tourism. Madison: Omni Press, 120-128.
    Lubeck, L. (1990). East African safari tourism: the environmental role of tour operators, travel agents and tourists. Ecotourism and Resource Conservation: A collection of papers. J. Kusler: 115-133.
    Lück, M. (Ed.). (2008). The encyclopedia of tourism and recreation in marine environments. Wallingford, UK ; Cambridge, MA: CABI.
    Lück, M., & Porter, B. A. (2019). Experiences on swim-with-dolphins tours: An importance-performance analysis of dolphin tour participants in Kaikoura, New Zealand. Journal of Ecotourism, 18(1), 25–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2017.1353609
    Luckenbach, R. A. and R. B. Bury (1983). “Effects of off-road vehicles on the biota of the Algodones Dunes, Imperial County, California.” Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 265-286.
    Lucrezi, S., Saayman, M., & van der Merwe, P. (2013). Managing diving impacts on reef ecosystems: Analysis of putative influences of motivations, marine life preferences and experience on divers’ environmental perceptions. Ocean and Coastal Management, 76, 52–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.02.020
    Luebke, J. F., & Matiasek, J. (2013). “An exploratory study of zoo visitors’ exhibit experiences and reactions.” Zoo Biology 32(4), 407-416.
    Lukas, K. E., & Ross, S. R. (2005). “Zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes toward gorillas and chimpanzees.” The Journal of Environmental Education 36(4), 33.
    Lukas, K. E., & Ross, S. R. (2014). “Naturalistic exhibits may be more effective than traditional exhibits at improving zoo-visitor attitudes toward african apes.” Anthro- zoös 27(3), 435-455.
    Lukas, K., (1999). A review of nutritional and motivational factors contributing to the performance of regurgitation and reingestion in captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 63, 237-249.
    Lumeij, J., Hommers, C., (2008). Foraging ‘enrichment’ as treatment for pterotillomania. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 111, 85-94.
    Lummaa, K., & Rojola, L. (eds.). (2014). Posthumanismi. Turku: Eetos.
    Lumsdon, L. M. and J. S. Swift (1998). “Ecotourism at the crossroads: the case of Costa Rica.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 6(2): 155-172.
    Lundquist, D., Gemmell, N. J., Würsig, B., & Markowitz, T. (2013). Dusky dolphin movement patterns: Short-term effects of tourism. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 47(4), 430–449. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2013.778301
    Lutz, C., Coleman, K., Maier, A., McCowan, B., 2011. Abnormal behavior in rhesus monkeys: risk factors within and between animals and facilities. Am. J. Primatol. 73, 41-41.
    Lutz, C., Well, A., Novak, M., 2003. Stereotypic and self-injurious behavior in rhesus macaques: a survey and retrospective analysis of environment and early experience. Am. J. Primatol. 60, 1-15.
    Lyles, A., Wharton, D., 2013. Zoos and zoological parks. In: Simon, A,. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (2nd Edition). Academic Press, Waltham, USA, pp. 470-479.
    Lyons, J. R. (1982). Nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation in the U.S.: Identifying the other constituency. Forty-seventh North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, Portland, Oregon, Wildlife Management Institute.
    M Okello, M. (2014). Economic Contribution, Challenges and Way Forward for Wildlife-Based Tourism Industry in Eastern African Countries Moses M. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0269.1000122
    MacArthur, R. A., R. H. Johnston, et al. (1979). “Factors influencing heart rate in free-ranging bighorn sheep: a physiological approach to the study of wildlife harassment.” Canadian Journal of Zoology 57: 2010-2021.
    MacDonald, E. 2015. “Quantifying the impact of Wellington Zoo’s persuasive communication campaign on post-visit behaviour.” Zoo Biology 34(2), 163-169.
    MacKay, K. J., & Campbell, J. M. (2004). An examination of residents’ support for hunting as a tourism product. Tourism Management, 25(4), 443-452.
    MacKay, K. J., D. E. Lamont, et al. (1996). “Northern Ecotourists and General Tourists: An Intra-provincial Comparison.” Journal of Applied Recreation Research 24(4): 335-357.
    MacLellan, L. R. (1999). An examination of wildlife tourism as a sustainable form of tourism development in North West Scotland. International Journal of Tourism Research, 1(5), 375-387.
    MacLellan, R. L. (1999). “An examination of wildlife tourism as a sustainable form of tourism development in North West Scotland.” International Journal of Tourism Research 1(5): 375-387.
    Macri, A., Patterson-Kane, E.(2011). Behavioural analysis of solitary versus socially housed snow leopards (Panthera uncia), with the provision of simulated social contact. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 130, 115-123.
    Madeleine, B. (2003). Traditional ecological knowledge of wildlife: implications for conservation and development in the Wuyishan Nature Reserve, Fujian Province, China, CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast, Qld.
    Madsen, J. (1985). “Impact of disturbance on field utilization of pink-footed geese in West Jutland, Denmark.” Biological Conservation 33: 53-63.
    Maingi, S. W., Ondigi, A. N., & Wadawi, J. K. (2016). Market Profiling and Positioning of Park Brands in Kenya (Case of Premium and Under‐Utilized Parks). International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(1), 91–104. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2036
    Makagon, M., McCowan, B., Mench, J. (2012). How can social network analysis contribute to social behavior research in applied ethology? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 138, 152-161.
    Makhdoum, M. F. and N. Khorasani (1988). “Differences between environmental impacts of logging and recreation in mature forest ecosystems.” Environmental Conservation 15(2): 137-142.
    Maljkovi, A. and Côté, I. (2011). “Effects of tourism-related provisioning on the trophic signatures and movement patterns of an apex predator, the Caribbean reef shark.” Biological Conservation 144 (2): 859-865
    Mallinson, J. J. C. (2003). “A Sustainable Future for Zoos and Their Role in WIldlife Conservation.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8(1): 59-63.
    Manfredo M J. (2002). Wildlife Viewing in North America: A Management Planning Handbook [M]. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. 54.
    Manfredo, M. J. (2002). Wildlife viewing: A management handbook. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press
    Manfredo, M. J. and R. A. Larson (1993). “Managing for wildlife viewing recreation experiences: a case study in Colorado.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 21(3): 226-236.
    Manidis Roberts Consultants (1996). Developing a Tourism Optimisation Management Model (TOMM)
    Mansfeld, Y., & Pizam, A. (2006). Tourism, security and safety. Routledge.
    Maple, L. C., Eagles, P. F. J., & Rolfe, H. (2010). Birdwatchers’ specialisation characteristics and national park tourism planning. Journal of Ecotourism, 9(3), 219–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040903370213
    Maple, T. (2007). Toward a science of welfare for animals in the zoo. J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci. 10, 63-70.
    Maple, T. (2014). Elevating the priority of zoo animal welfare: the chief executive as an agent of reform. Zoo Biol. 33, 1-7.
    Maple, T. (2015). Four decades of psychological research on zoo animal welfare. WAZA Magazine 16, 41-44.
    Maréchal, L., Semple, S., Majolo, B., Qarro, M., Heistermann, M. and MacLarnon, A. (2011). “Impacts of tourism on anxiety and physiological stress levels in wild male Barbary macaques.” Biological Conservation 144 (9); 2188-2193.
    Margaryan, L., & Wall-Reinius, S. (2017). Commercializing the Unpredictable: Perspectives From Wildlife Watching Tourism Entrepreneurs in Sweden. HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF WILDLIFE, 22(5), 406–421. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2017.1334842
    Marino,L., Lilienfeld, S., O., Malamud, R., Nathan N., Nathan and Brogliod, R. (2010). “Do Zoos and Aquariums Promote Attitude Change in Visitors? A Critical Evaluation of the American Zoo and Aquarium Study.” Society and Animals 18, 126-138.
    Marion, J. L. and T. A. Farrell (1998). Managing Ecotourism Visitation in Protected Areas. Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers – Volume 2. K. Lindberg, M. E. Wood and D. Engeldrum. Vermont, The Ecotourism Society. 2: 155-181.
    Markwell, K. (2018). An assessment of wildlife tourism prospects in Papua New Guinea. Tourism Recreation Research, 43(2), 250–263. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2017.1420008
    Marmion, P. (1998). Seal Tourism Potential in Tasmania. Huonville, Parks & Wildlife Service Tasmania: 1-22.
    Maroondah City Council, ‘A guide to the hazards of feeding our native birds’, Brochure, Maroondah City Council, Victoria
    Marschall, S., Granquist, S. M., & Burns, G. L. (2017). Interpretation in wildlife tourism. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, 17, 11.
    Marseille, M., Elands, B., H., M. and Brink, M. L. van den. (2012). “Experiencing Polar Bears in the Zoo: Feelings and Cognitions in Relation to a Visitor’s Conservation Attitude.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 17(1), 29-43.
    Marshall, A. (1988). Tourists, parks and poverty: wildlife tourism and African development. The Exploitation of Animals in Africa: Proceedings of a Colloquium at the University of Aberdeen. J. C. Stone. Aberdeen, Aberdeen University: 237-244.
    Martin, J. G. A., & Réale, D. (2008). Animal temperament and human disturbance: Implications for the response of wildlife to tourism. Behavioural Processes, 77(1), 66–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2007.06.004
    Martin, R. and K. Handasyde (1999). The Koala: Natural History, Conservation and Management. Sydney, NSW, University of New South Wales.
    Maslak, R., Sergiel, A., Hill, S. (2013). Some aspects of locomotory stereotypies in spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus) and changes in behavior after relocation and dental treatment. J. Vet. Behav. 8, 335-341.
    Mason, G. (2010). Species differences in responses to captivity: stress, welfare and the comparative method. Trends Ecol. Evolut. 25, 713-721.
    Mason, G. (2015). Using species differences in health and well-being to identify intrinsic risk and protective factors. WAZA Magazine 16, 2-5.
    Mason, G., Burn, C., Dallaire, J., Kroshko, J., McDonald Kinkaid, H., Jeschke, J. (2013). Plastic animals in cages: behavioural flexibility and responses to captivity. Anim. Behav. 85, 1113-1126.
    Mason, G., Clubb, R., Latham, N., Vickery, S., 2007. Why and how should we use environmental enrichment to tackle stereotypic behaviour? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102, 163-188.
    Mason, G., Veasey, J. (2010). How should the psychological well‐being of zoo elephants be objectively investigated? Zoo Biol. 29, 237-255.
    Mason, P (2000) Zoo Tourism: The Need for More Research, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8:4, p333-339.
    Mason, P. (2007). “Roles of the modern zoo: conflicting or complementary?” Tourism Review International 11(3), 251-263.
    Massei, G.; Quy, R.J; Gurney, J; Cowan, D.P. (2010). “Can translocations be used to mitigate human–wildlife conflicts?” Wildlife Research 37(5) 428–439, CSIRO Publishing.
    Masson, D. (1990). Holidays to help the planet. The Australian Magazine. March 1990: 52-56.
    Matheison, A. and G. Wall (1982). Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts. New York, Longman.
    Maurice, M. E., Ndoua, A. S. M., Mbinde, E. Q., & Ebong, E. L. (2018). Gender Discrimination in Wildlife Tourism Services in Buea, Southwest Region, Cameroon. International Journal of Contemporary Tourism Research, 2(1), 95–104. https://doi.org/10.30625/ijctr.435084
    Mayer, M., Brenner, L., Schauss, B., & Stadler, C. (2018). The nexus between governance and the economic impact of whale-watching. The case of the coastal lagoons in the El Vizcaíno Biosphere Reserve, Baja California, Mexico. Ocean and Coastal Management, 162, 46–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.04.016
    Mazur, N. A. (2001). The Corporate Ark. After the Ark? Environmental Policy Making and the Zoo. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press: 168-169 and contents page.
    McArthur, S. (2000). Beyond Carrying Capacity: Introducing a model to monitor and manage visitor activity in forests. Forest Tourism and Recreation: Case Studies in Environmental Management. X. Font and J. Tribe. High Wycombe, UK, CABI Publishing.
    McCool, S. F. and D. N. Cole (1997). Proceedings – Limits of Acceptable Change and Related Planning Processes: Progress and Future Directions. Limits of Acceptable Change and Related Planning Processes: Progress and Future Directions, Montana, United States Dept of Agriculture.
    McCool, S. M. (1996). “Wildlife viewing, natural area protection and community sustainability and resiliency.” Natural Areas Journal 16(2): 147-151.
    McCrie, N. & Noske, R. 2015. Birds of the Darwin Region. 454 pp. CSIRO Publishing, Clayton South, Victoria. ISBN: 9781486300341.(see review http://territoryq.com.au/issues/ten/index.html#p=126)
    McDonald, J. L., Maclean, M., Evans, M. R., & Hodgson, D. J. (2015). Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats. Ecology and Evolution, 5(14), 2745–2753.
    McFarlane, B. L. (1998). “Past Experience and Behavioural Choices Among Wilderness Users.” Journal of Leisure Research 30(2): 195-213.
    McKenner, V., W. Travers, et al. (1987). Beyond the Bars: The Zoo Dilemma. Northamptonshire, UK, Thorsons Publishing Group.
    McKercher, B. (1993). “The unrecognised threat to tourism – Can tourism survive sustainability?” Tourism Management 14(2): 131-136.
    McKercher, B. (1998). Chapter 1: A profile of the nature-based tourism sector. The Business of Nature-Based Tourism. B. McKercher. Melbourne, Hospitality Press.
    McKercher, B. and B. Robbins (1998). “Business Development Issues Affecting Nature-based Tourism Operators in Australia.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 6(2): 173-188.
    McKercher, R. (1993). “Some fundamental truths about tourism: understanding tourism’s social and environmental impacts.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 1(1): 6-16.
    McNeil, D. G. J. (1996). Birds galore, pursued by flocks of flying birders. New York Times. New York: 4.
    McNeilage, A. (1996). Ecotourism and mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes. The Exploitation of Mammal Populations. V. Taylor and N. Dunstone. London, Chapman & Hall: 335-334.
    McPhee, M. (2004). Generations in captivity increases behavioral variance: considerations for captive breeding and reintroduction programs. Biol. Conserv. 115, 71-77.
    Medio, D., Ormond, R. F. G., & Pearson, M. (1997). Effect of briefings on rates of damage to corals by scuba divers. Biological Conservation, 79(1), 91-95.
    Meehan, C.L., Garner, J.P., Mench, J.A., (2004). Environmental enrichment and development of cage stereotypy in orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Dev. Psychobiol. 44, 209-218.
    Meehan, C.L., Mench, J.A. (2007). The challenge of challenge: Can problem solving opportunities enhance animal welfare? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102, 246-261.
    Meek, I., A. Willis, et al. (1994). Proceedings of the ANZECC 6th Australasian Regional Seminar on National Parks and Wildlife Management. ANZECC 6th Australasian Regional Seminar on National Parks and Wildlife Management.
    Mehta, J. N., & Kellert, S. R. (1998). Local attitudes toward community-based conservation policy and programmes in Nepal: a case study in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area. Environmental Conservation, 25(4), 320-333.
    Melfi, V., A. (2009). “There are big gaps in our knowledge, and thus approach, to zoo animal welfare: a case for evidence-based zoo animal management.” Zoo Biology 28 (6), 574-588.
    Melfi, V.A. (2009). There are big gaps in our knowledge, and thus approach, to zoo animal welfare: a case for evidence-based zoo animal management. Zoo Biol. 28, 574-588.
    Mellen, J.D., Sevenich MacPhee, M. (2001). Philosophy of environmental enrichment: past, present, and future. Zoo Biol. 20, 211-226.
    Mellor, D. J. (2016) Updating Animal Welfare Thinking: Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” towards “A Life Worth Living.” Animals 2016, 6, 21; doi:10.3390/ani6030021
    Mellor, D.J. and Beausoleil, N.J. (2015) Extending the ‘Five Domains’ model for animal welfare assessment to incorporate positive welfare states. Animal Welfare, 24, 241–253
    Melubo, K., & Carr, A. (2019). Developing indigenous tourism in the bomas: Critiquing issues from within the Maasai community in Tanzania. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 14(3), 219–232. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873X.2018.1533557
    Mendyk, R. (2015). Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) in North American zoos. Zoo Biol. 34, 139-152.
    Merritt, D. J., Baker, C. (2002). A biological basis for mangament of glow-worm populations of eco-tourism significance. Gold Coast, CRC Sustainable Tourism: 1-62.
    Merwe, P. van der, & Saayman, M. (2014). Factors influencing a memorable game viewing experience. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 3(2).
    Mestel, R. (1993). “Only the tamest survive tourists.” New Scientist 139: 9.
    Metroparks, C. (1998). Socialization influences on adult zoo visitation. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 23(1), 43-62.
    Meyer, L., Pethybridge, H., Beckmann, C., & Bruce, B. (2019). The impact of wildlife tourism on the foraging ecology and nutritional condition of an apex predator. Tourism Management, 75, 206–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.04.025
    Mhlanga, M., Ramesh, T., Kalle, R., & Madiri, T. H. (2018). Spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) habitat occupancy in a national park, hunting area and private ranch in western Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology, 56(4), 818–827. https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12567
    Michaels, C., Downie, J., Campbell-Palmer, R. (2014). The importance of enrichment for advancing amphibian welfare and conservation goals: a review of a neglected topic. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8, 7-23.
    Michaels, C., Gini, B., Preziosi, R. (2014). The importance of natural history and species-specific approaches in amphibian ex-situ conservation. Herpetol. J. 24, 135-145.
    Midgley, M. (1983). Animals and Why They Matter. Middlesex, England, Penguin Books.
    Mieczkowski, Z. (1995). Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation. New York, University Press of America, Inc.
    Mihajlovic, N. (2000). Bear Revival Is Slovenian Headache. The Moscow Times. Moscow.
    Miller, I. J. (2013). The nature of the beasts: Empire and exhibition at the Tokyo Imperial Zoo. University of California Press.
    Miller, L., Bettinger, T., Mellen, J. (2008). The reduction of stereotypic pacing in tigers (Panthera tigris) by obstructing the view of neighbouring individuals. ‎Anim. Welf. 17, 255-258.
    Miller, L., Zeigler-Hill, V., Mellen, J., Koeppel, J., Greer, T., & Kuczaj, S. (2013). “Dolphin shows and interaction programmes: Benefits for conservation education?” Zoo Biology 32(1), 45-53.
    Milner-Gulland, E. J. and R. Mace (1998). Conservation of Biological Resources. Oxford, Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Milstein, T (2008) When Whales “Speak for Themselves”: Communication as a Mediating force in Wildlife Tourism, Environmental Communication, 2:2, 173-192
    Minteer, B. A., & Collins, J. P. (2013). “Ecological ethics in captivity: Balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.” Ilar Journal 54(1), 41-51.
    Mkiramweni, N. (2014). Sustainable wildlife tourism in the context of climate change : The case study of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania.
    Mohapatra, R., Panda, S., Acharya, U. (2014). Study on activity pattern and incidence of stereotypic behavior in captive tigers. J. Vet. Behav. 9, 172-176.
    MOLIA, S., KASTEN, R. W., STUCKEY, M. J., & BOULOUIS, H. J. (2016). Isolation of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella koehlerae subsp. koehlerae, Bartonella koehlerae subsp. bothieri and a new subspecies of B. koehlerae from free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) from South Africa, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia and captive cheetahs from California. Epidemiology and Infection, 144(15), 3237. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816001394
    Montague, T. L. (2000). The brushtail possum. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Publishing.
    Montaudouin, S., Le Pape, G., (2005). Comparison between 28 zoological parks: stereotypic and social behaviours of captive brown bears (Ursus arctos). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 92, 129-141.
    Monti, F., Duriez, O., Dominici, J.-M., & Sforzi, A. (2018). Conserving wildlife facing mass‐tourism calls for effective management. Animal Conservation, 21(6), 463–464. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12474
    Mony, P. R., & Heimlich, J. E. (2008). “Talking to visitors about conservation: Exploring message communication through docent–visitor interactions at zoos.” Visitor Studies 11(2), 151-162.
    Moore, N., S. Olsson, et al. (1997). To feed or not to feed? The interpretation of issues surrounding the artificial feeding of wildlife. Proceedings of the 6th National Conference of the Interpretation Australia Association, Interpretation Australia Association.
    Moore, S. A. and B. Carter (1993). “Ecotourism in the 21st Century.” Tourism Management 14(2): 123-130.
    Moore, S., & Rodger, K. (2010). Wildlife tourism as a common pool resource issue: Enabling conditions for sustainability governance. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(7), 831-844.
    Moore, S., Newsome, D., Rodger, K. and Smith, A. (2009) Inter-disciplinary tourism research: Insights for conservation biology. Open Conservation Biology Journal.3: 57-64.
    Moorhouse, T. P., Dahlsjö, C. A. L., Baker, S. E., & D’Cruze, N. C. (2015). The Customer Isn’t Always Right-Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism. PloS One, 10(10), e0138939.
    Moraid, D. B., Birenda, K. C., Mao, Y., & Mosimane, A. (2015). Wildlife conservation through tourism microentrepreneurship among Namibian communities. Tourism Review International, 19(1–2), 43–61. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14338796190477
    Morais, D. B., Bunn, D., Hoogendoorn, G., & Birendra, K. C. (2018). The potential role of tourism microentrepreneurship in the prevention of rhino poaching. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING REVIEW, 40(4), 443–461. https://doi.org/10.3828/idpr.2018.21
    Morais, J., Castanho, R. A., Pinto-Gomes, C., & Santos, P. (2018). Characteristics of Iona National Park’s visitors: Planning for ecotourism and sustainable development in Angola. Cogent Social Sciences, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2018.1490235
    More, T. A. (1979). “Wildlife Preferences and Children’s Books.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 7(4): 272-278.
    Moreno, C. A., K. M. Lunecke, et al. (1986). “The response of an intertidal Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda) population to protection from Man in southern Chile and the effects on benthic sessile assemblages.” Oikos 46: 359-364.
    Morgan, K. N. and Tromborg C.. T. (2007) Sources of stress in captivity. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102 262–302
    Morgan, K., Tromborg, C., 2007. Sources of stress in captivity. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 102, 262-302.
    Moritzand C, Kikkawa J. (1993) Conservation Biology in Australia and Oceania [M]. Clevedon: Channel View Publications, 353-357.
    Morrison D. (1995) Wildlife Tourism in the Minch: Distribution, Impact and Development Opportunities [R]. Stornoway
    Moscardo, G (2000) Understanding wildlife tourism market segments: an Australian marine study. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 5 (2). pp. 36-53
    Moscardo, G. (1996). Principles for effective interpretation: what have we learnt from 100 years of presenting heritage to visitors. Fifth Annual Interpretation Australia Association Conference, Bendigo.
    Moscardo, G. (1997). Birdwatching as a Tourist Activity in the Great Barrier Reef Region. Townsville, James Cook University.
    Moscardo, G. and B. Woods (2000). Close Encounters – Lessons for Interpreting Wildlife. Townsville, James Cook University.
    Moscardo, G. and D. Green (1997). Wildlife Viewing as a Rainforest Activity: Visitor Perspectives and Implications for Management. 1997 CRC Trem Annual Conference, Townsville.
    Moscardo, G., & Saltzer, R. (2005). Understanding tourism wildlife interactions. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Moscardo, G., B. Woods, et al. (2001). Understanding Visitor Perspectives on Wildlife Tourism. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-57.
    Moscardo, G., Saltzer, R., (2004). Understanding Wildlife Tourism Markets- Chapter 9. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 167-185.
    Moscardo, G., Woods, B., & Greenwood, T. (2001). Understanding visitor perspectives on wildlife tourism. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Moscardo, G., Woods, B., Saltzer (2004). The Role of Interpretation in Wildlife Tourism – Chapter 12. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 231-251.
    Moss, A., & Esson, M. (2013). “The educational claims of zoos: Where do we go from here?” Zoo Biology 32(1), 13-18.
    Mossaz, A. C. (2015). Decision Power in High-End Tourism: The Role of Travel Agents in Wildlife Conservation. Griffith University.
    Moulton M,Sanderson J. (1999). Wildlife Issues in a Changing World (the2nd edition) [M]. London: LewisPublishers, 78.
    Moulton, M. P. and J. Sanderson (1999). Chapter 18: An in-depth case study of gorillas. Wildlife Issues in a Changing World (Second Edition). M. P. Moulton and J. Sanderson. Florida, Lewis Publishers: 381-406.
    Muboko, N., Gandiwa, E., Muposhi, V., & Tarakini, T. (2016). Illegal hunting and protected areas: Tourist perceptions on wild animal poisoning in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Tourism Management, 52, 170–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.06.023
    Muloin, S., H. Zeppel, et al. (2001). Indigenous Wildlife Tourism in Australia: wildlife attractions, cultural interpretation and Indigenous involvement. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-91.
    Muloin, S., Zeppel, H., & Higginbottom, K. (2001). Indigenous wildlife tourism in Australia. Co-operative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism.
    Muloin, S., Zeppel, H., & Higginbottom, K. B. (2002). Indigenous Wildlife Tourism. Gold Coast.
    Munasinghe, M. and J. McNeely, Eds. (1994). Protected Area Economics and Policy. Washington, D.C., World Conservation Union (IUCN).
    Munn, C. A. (1992). Macaw Biology and Ecotourism, or “When a Bird in the Bush is Worth Two in the Hand”. New World Parrots in Crisis: Solutions from Conservation Biology. S. R. Beissinger and N. F. R. Snyder. Washington D.C., Sminthsonian Institution Press.
    Munn, C. A. (1998). “Adding value to nature through macaw-oriented ecotourism.” Journal American Vet Med Association 212(8): 1246-1249.
    Muposhi, V. K., Gandiwa, E., Chemura, A., & Bartels, P. (2016). Habitat Heterogeneity Variably Influences Habitat Selection by Wild Herbivores in a Semi-Arid Tropical Savanna Ecosystem. PloS One, 11(9), e0163084.
    Murata, K. (2014). Wildlife infectious diseases and the early warning system using zoo networks of the world. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 19, 131–5.
    Murphy, S. E., Campbell, I., & Drew, J. A. (2018). Examination of tourists’ willingness to pay under different conservation scenarios; Evidence from reef manta ray snorkeling in Fiji. PloS One, 13(8), e0198279.
    Musa, G. (2003). Chapter 7: Sipadan: An Over-exploited Scuba-diving Paradise? An Analysis of Tourism Impact, Diver Satisfaction and Management Priorities. Marine Ecotourism Issues and Experiences. B. Garrod, Wilson, J.C. Churchpoint, Channel view Publications: 122-137.
    Mustika, P. L. K., Birtles, A., Everingham, Y., & Marsh, H. (2013). The human dimensions of wildlife tourism in a developing country: Watching spinner dolphins at Lovina, Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(2), 229–251. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.692881
    Mustika, P., Birtles, A., Everingham, Y., & Marsh, H. (2013). The human dimensions of wildlife tourism in a developing country: Watching spinner dolphins at Lovina, Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(2), 229-251.
    Mustika, P., Kusuma, L., Birtles, A., Everingham, Y., Marsh, H. (2013). The Human Dimensions of Wildlife Tourism in a Developing Country: Watching Spinner Dolphins at Lovina, Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21.2 (2013): 229-251.
    Mutanga, C. N., Gandiwa, E., & Muboko, N. (2017). An analysis of tourist trends in northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe, 1991-2014. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2017.1392921
    Nahanni River Adventures, C. (2003). Wildlife Viewing Guidelines. Yukon, Nahanni River Adventures: 1-5.
    Nash, S. (2016). Research Focus Group update- why research? In: Tapley, B., Redbond, J., (Ed.), BIAZA Reptile & Amphibian Working Group Meeting. Crocodiles of the World, Oxfordshire, UK.
    Nash, S. (2016). Snake enclosure size- collaborative research projects for BIAZA collections. In: Tapley, B., Redbond, J., (Ed.), BIAZA Reptile & Amphibian Working Group Meeting. Crocodiles of the World, Oxfordshire, UK.
    National Audubon Society, I. (2001). The National Audubon Society Travel Ethic for Environmentally Responsible Travel, National Audubon Society, Inc.,: 1-5.
    National Geographic Introduces Investigative Report on the Dark Side of the Global Wildlife Tourism Industry. (2019). Travel & Leisure Close-Up.
    National Geographic Reports on the Dark Side of the Global Wildlife Tourism Industry. (2019). Entertainment Close-Up.
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Marine Fisheries Service (?). Guidelines for viewing marine mammals for private boaters, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/US Department of Commerce: 1.
    Natrass, R. 2001, ‘Debate: To Feed or Not to Feed’, Wildlife Australia, Vol 38 pp. 22 – 23
    Naugle, R., & Grams, K. (2013). Long-term methods and effects of remotely treating wildlife with imunocontraception. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44, 138–40.
    Navrud, S. and E. D. Mungatana (1994). “Environmental valuation in developing countries: The recreational value of wildlife viewing.” Ecological Economics 11: 135-151.
    Nazimi, L., Robbins, W. D., Schilds, A., & Huveneers, C. (2018). Comparison of industry-based data to monitor white shark cage-dive tourism. Tourism Management, 66, 263–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.12.002
    NEAPWG (2000). Nature and Ecotourism Accreditation Program Edition 2 (NEAP). Brisbane, NEAP.
    Neil, D. T. and I. Brieze (1998). Wild Dolphin Provisioning at Tangalooma, Moreton Island: An Evaluation. Moreton Bay and Catchment Conference, Brisbane, School of Marine Science, University of Queensland.
    New Hampshire Fish and Game Department (2003). Guidelines for winter feeding of wild turkeys in New Hampshire. State of New Hampshire, New Hampshire Fish and Game Department: 1-2.
    Newberry, R., Swanson, J. (2008). Implications of breaking mother–young social bonds. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 110, 3-23.
    Newman, G. (1994). Business management and marketing in park management, case 2: the application of business planning principles to Phillip Island Penguin Reserve. Proceedings of the ANZECC 6th Australasian Regional Seminar on National Parks and Wildlife Management, Australian Alps, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council , Canberra.
    Newsome D,Dowling R K,Moore S A. (1999). Wildlife Tourism [M].Recreation in American Life [C]. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing, 219-322.
    Newsome, D, Moore, S. and Dowling, R. (2002) Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and . Channel View Publications, Clevedon, UK
    Newsome, D; Smith, A; Stoeckl, N, Lee, D (2005). Regional economic dependence on iconic wildlife tourism: case studies of Monkey Mia and Hervey Bay. Journal of Tourism Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1, May 2005: pp. 69-81.
    Newsome, D. (2003). The role of an accidentally introduced fungus in degrading the health of the Stirling Range National Park ecosystem in South Western Australia: status and prognosis. In: Managing for healthy ecosystems edited by D. J. Rapport, W. L. Lasley, D. E. Rolston, N. O. Nielsen, C. O. Qualset and A. B. Damania. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
    Newsome, D. and Rodger, K. (2008) Impacts of tourism on pinnipeds and implications for tourism management. In: James Higham and Michael Luck (editors) Marine wildlife and tourism management. pp. 182-205. CABI Publishing, Oxford, UK
    Newsome, D. and Rodger, K. (2008) To feed or not to feed: a contentious issues in wildlife tourism. In: Daniel Lunney, Adam Munn and Will Meikle (eds) Too close for comfort: contentious issues in human-wildlife encounters. pp.255-270. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales
    Newsome, D. and Rodger, K. (forthcoming) Vanishing fauna of tourism interest In: Last Chance Tourism
    Newsome, D. and Rodger, K. (forthcoming) Wildlife Tourism In A Holden and D Fennell (editors). A handbook of Tourism and the Environment. Routledge
    Newsome, D. Lewis, A., and Moncrieff, D. (2004) Impacts and risks associated with developing, but unsupervised, stingray tourism at Hamelin Bay, Western Australia. International Journal of Tourism Research 6: 305-323
    Newsome, D., & Hughes, M. (2017). Jurassic World as a contemporary wildlife tourism theme park allegory. CURRENT ISSUES IN TOURISM, 20(13), 1311–1319. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2016.1161013
    Newsome, D., & Rodger, K. (2013). Wildlife Tourism. Routledge.
    Newsome, D., Dowling, R. and Moore, S (2005) Wildlife Tourism Channel View Publications, Clevedon, UK.
    Newsome, D., Rodger, K., Pearce, J., & Chan, K. L. J. (2017). Visitor satisfaction with a key wildlife tourism destination within the context of a damaged landscape.
    Newsome, David, & Rodger, K. (2008). To feed or not to feed: A contentious issue in wildlife tourism. Australian Zoologist, 34, 255–270.
    Newsome, David, Dowling, R. K., & Moore, S. A. (2005). Wildlife tourism. Channel View Publications.
    Nicol, C., Pope, S., (1993). A comparison of the behaviour of solitary and group-housed budgerigars. ‎Anim. Welf. 2, 269-277.
    Nijman, V., (2014). An assessment of the live elephant trade in Thailand (Cambridge: TRAFFIC), 1–38.
    Nimon, A. J. and B. Stonehouse (1995). Penguin responses to humans in antarctica: some issues and problems in determining disturbance caused by visitors. The Penguins. P. Dann, I. Norman and P. Reilly, Surrey Beatty & Sons: 420-434.
    Norman, B. (2000). The Whale Shark – Current Conservation Initiatives, Australian Marine Conservation Society: 1-12.
    Norman, B. (2002). Review of current and historical research on the ecology of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus), and applications to conservation through management of the species. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.
    Norton, B. G., Hutchins, M., Stevens, E. F. and M., & T. (1995). Ethics on the ark: Zoos, animals welfare and wildlife conservation. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press.
    Novelli, M., & Humavindu, M. (2005). Wildlife tourism – wildlife use vs local gain: Trophy hunting in Namibia. Butterworth-Heinemann.
    NSW Tourism NSW (2001). Nature Tourism Discussion Paper.
    Nyeki, D. M. (1991). Wildlife conservation and tourism in Kenya. Nairobi, Jacaranda Designs Ltd.
    Nygard, M., & Uthardt, L. (2011). Opportunity or threat? Finnish hunters’ attitudes to hunting tourism. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 19(3), 383–401. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2010.524701
    Nygren, N. V. and Ojalammi, S. (2018) Conservation education in zoos: a literature review. Trace: Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies 4.DOI: https://doi.org/10.23984/fjhas.66540
    Nygren, N. V., & Jokinen, A. (2013). “Significance of affect and ethics in applying conservation standards: The practices of flying squirrel surveyors.” Geoforum 46(0), 79-90. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2012.12.006
    O’Neil, F. and D. Lee (?). Dolphin Interaction – Tourism Management and Best Practice. Bunbury, Western Australia, Dolphin Discovery Centre.
    O’Neill, Barnard, et al. (2004). Best Practice and Interpretation in Tourist/Wildlife Encounters: a wild dolphin swim tour example. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-57.
    Oaten, L. (1993). “Visitor Management (by interpretatation): Kangaroo Island’s Seal Bay.” Australian Ranger Autumn.
    Odunga, P. O., & Maingi, S. W. (2011). The Wildlife Tourism Market to Kenya (2002-2003). JOURNAL OF TRAVEL & TOURISM MARKETING, 28(1), 62–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2011.535444
    Ogunjinmi, A. A. (2016). Specialisation Preferences and Perceived Motivation in Ecotourism and Wildlife Management Programme at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 20(2), 59. https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v20i2.5
    Ojalammi, S., & Nygren, N. V. (forthcoming). “Visitor Perceptions of Nature Conservation at Helsinki Zoo.” Anthrozoös, in print.
    Okello, M. M., & Yerian, S. (2009). Tourist satisfaction in relation to attractions and implications for conservation in the protected areas of the Northern Circuit, Tanzania. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 17(5), 605–625. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580902928450
    Olindo, P. (1991). The old man of nature tourism: Kenya. Nature Tourism: Managing for the Environment. T. Whelan. Washington, D.C., Island Press: 23-38.
    Olsson, I., Keeling, L., 2005. Why in earth? Dustbathing behaviour in jungle and domestic fowl reviewed from a Tinbergian and animal welfare perspective. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 93, 259-282.
    Orams, M (2002). Marine Tourism Development, Impacts and Management. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.
    Orams, M. (1997). Wildlife tourism. Tourism Management, 18(2), 121–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(97)80781-9
    Orams, M. B. (1993). The role of education on managing marine wildlife – tourist interaction. 1993 National MESA Conference.
    Orams, M. B. (1994). “Tourism and marine wildlife – the wild dolphins of Tangalooma, Australia – a case report.” Anthrozoos 7(3): 195-201.
    Orams, M. B. (1994). Managing Inappropraite Behaviour at a Wild Dolphin Feeding Program. Joint Scientific Conference on Science, Management and Sustainability of Marine Habitats in the 21st Century, Townsville, Australian Coral Reef Society and the International Society for Reef Studies.
    Orams, M. B. (1995). “Towards a more desirable form of Ecotourism.” Tourism Management 16(1): 3-8.
    Orams, M. B. (1995). “Using Interpretation to Manage Nature-based Tourism.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(2): 81-94.
    Orams, M. B. (1996). “A conceptual model of tourist-wildlife interactions: the case for education as a management strategy.” Australian Geographer 27(1): 39-51.
    Orams, M. B. (1996). A conceptual model of tourist-wildlife interaction: The case for education as a management strategy. The Australian Geographer, 27(1), 39–51.
    Orams, M. B. (1997). “Historical accounts of human – dolphin interactions and recent developments in wild dolphin based tourism in Australasia.” Tourism Management 18(5): 317-326.
    Orams, M. B. (2000). “Tourists getting close to whales, is it what whale-watching is all about?” Tourism Management 21: 561-569.
    Orams, M. B. (2000). Tourists getting close to whales, is it what whale-watching is all about?. Tourism management, 21(6), 561-569.
    Orams, M. B. (2000). Tourists getting close to whales, is it what whale-watching is all about?. Tourism management, 21(6), 561-569.
    Orams, M. B. (2002). “Feeding wildlife as a tourism attraction: a review of issues and impacts.” Tourism Management 23: 281-293.
    Orams, M. B. and G. J. E. Hill (1998). “Controlling the ecotourist in a wild dolphin feeding program: is education the answer?” The Journal of Environmental Education 29(3): 33-38.
    Orams, M. B., & Hill, G. J. (1998). Controlling the ecotourist in a wild dolphin feeding program: Is education the answer?. The Journal of Environmental Education, 29(3), 33-38.
    Orman, T. (1983). Stalking with the Camera. Sporting Shooter: 23-25,76.
    Orsini, J-P and Newsome, D. (2005) Human perceptions of hauled out sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) and implications for management: a case study from Carnac Island, Western Australia. Tourism in Marine Environments 2: 23-37.
    Orsini, J-P., Shaughnessy, P. D. and Newsome, D. (2006) Impacts of human visitors on Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca cinerea) at Carnac Island, Western Australia: implications for tourism Management. Tourism in Marine Environments 3 (2): 101-115.
    Osano, P. M., Said, M. Y., Leeuw, J., & Ndiwa, N. (2013). Why keep lions instead of livestock? Assessing wildlife tourism‐based payment for ecosystem services involving herders in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. Natural Resources Forum, 37(4), 242–256. https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-8947.12027
    Osborne, C. P., Charles‐Dominique, T., Stevens, N., & Bond, W. J. (2018). Human impacts in African savannas are mediated by plant functional traits. New Phytologist, 220(1), 10–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15236
    Oyarzun, F. (2017). Exploring the Prospects for Adaptive Co-management of Wildlife Tourism: The case of Shark Cage Diving on Stewart Island, New Zealand. University of Otago.
    Ozawa, S., Evans, D. R., Higgins, C. R., & Laing, S. K. (2019). Development of an agent-based model to assess the impact of substandard and falsified anti-malarials: Uganda case study. Malaria Journal, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2628-3
    Packer, J. & Ballantyne, R. (2010) The role of zoos and aquariums in education for a sustainable future. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 127, 25-34.
    Packer, J., & Ballantyne, R. 2012. “Comparing captive and non-captive wildlife tourism.” Annals of Tourism Research 39(2), 1242-1245.
    Pagel, C. D., Scheer, M., & Lück, M. (2017). Swim encounters with killer whales (Orcinus orca) off Northern Norway: Interactive behaviours directed towards human divers and snorkellers obtained from opportunistic underwater video recordings. Journal of Ecotourism, 16(2), 190–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2016.1273939
    Pal, M. (2014). The roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals to achieve. ONE HEALTH. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 1, 148–55.
    Palmer, C. 2010. Animal Ethics in Context. Irvington: Columbia University Press
    Palmer, J. A. (1998). Environmental Education in the 21st Century – Theory, practice, progress and promise. New York, Routledge.
    Palmer, J. and P. Neal (1994). Environmental education: international development and progress. The Handbook of Environmental Education. London, Routledge.
    Palmer, L. (2002). Indigenous Interests in Safari Hunting and Fishing Tourism in the Northern Territory. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-83.
    Papastavrou, V. (1996). Sustainable use of whales: whaling or whale watching. The Exploitation of Mammal Populations. V. Taylor and N. Dunstone. London, Chapman & Hall: 111-113.
    Parsler, J. (1997). Tourism and the environment in Madagascar. Tourism and Sustainability: Principles to Practice. M. J. Stabler. New York, CAB International: 347-355.
    Parsonson, R. (1989). The New England-Dorrigo rainforest tourism study : A study prepared for the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service. Lindfield, N.S.W: Centre for Leisure and Tourism Studies, Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education, 1-147.
    Parsonson, R., Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education. Centre for Leisure Tourism Studies, & New South Wales. National Parks Wildlife Service. (1989). The New England-Dorrigo rainforest tourism study : A study prepared for the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service (Series Publication No. 7, Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education. Centre for Leisure and Tourism Studies). Lindfield, N.S.W.: Centre for Leisure and Tourism Studies, Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education
    Partridge, C. and K. J. MacKay (1998). “An Investigation of the Travel Motives of Bird-Watchers as a Nature-Based Tourist Segment.” Journal of Applied Recreation Research 23(3): 263-287.
    Patrick, P. G., Matthews, C. E., Ayers, D. F., & Tunnicliffe, S. D. (2007). “Conservation and education: Prominent themes in zoo mission statements.” The Journal of Environmental Education 38(3), 53-60.
    Patroni, J., Newsome, D., Kerr, D., & Sumanapala, D. P. (2019). Reflecting on the human dimensions of wild dolphin tourism in marine environments. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 25(1). https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.25.1.8
    Pearce, F. (1995). “Selling Wildlife Short.” New Scientist 147: 28-31.
    Pedevillano, C. and R. G. Wright (1987). “The influence of visitors on mountain goat activities in Glacier National Park, Montana.” Biological Conservation 39(1): 1-11.
    Penteriani, V., López-Bao, J. V., Bettega, C., & Dalerum, F. (2017). Consequences of brown bear viewing tourism. Biological Conservation, 206, 169.
    Pereboom, Z., Stevens, J., 2015. Applied animal welfare research in zoos: the more the better. WAZA Magazine 16, 22-25.
    Peterson, M. N., Hartis, B., Rodriguez, S., Green, M., & Lepczyk, C. A. (2012). Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict. PLOS One, 7(9).
    Petrie, M. (1999). Land for Wildlife – A local government initiative in South-east Queensland. Interntational Symposium on Society and Resource Management.
    Petrie, M., Walsh, D. & Hotchkis, D. 2003, ‘Encountering wildlife without feeding’, Land for Wildlife Note No. 20
    Pfeiffer, W., Braun, J., Burchell, J., & Witte, C. L. (2017). Whole-genome analysis of mycobacteria from birds at the San Diego Zoo. PloS One, 12(3), e0173464.
    Phillip Island Nature Park (2001). Can there be a balance between tourism and protection of the environment-A fieldwork case study of managment issues and Phillip Island. Phillip Island, Phillip Island Nature Park: 55-62.
    Phillip Island Nature Park (2001). Investigating change over time and place-Phillip Island Case Study: 13-20.
    Phillip Island Nature Park (2002). Managing a resource-Research on the little penguins of Phillip Island. Phillip Island, Phillip Island Nature Park: 55-62.
    Phillip Island Nature Park (2003). Phillip Island Nature Park – Annual report 2003: 1-41.
    Phillip Island Nature Park and Penguin Study Group (2000). Research Publications of the Phillip Island Nature Park and Penguin Study Group (1968-2000).
    Phillip Island Nature Park Australia (1997). Penguins on Parade – Phillip Island Nature Park. Victoria, Scancolor Pty Ltd.
    Phillip Island Nature Park Australia (1999). Penguin Parade – Visitors Guide. Cowes, Phillip Island Nature Park.
    Phillip Island Nature Park Australia (2000). Natural Encounters at Phillip Island Nature Park.
    Phillips, M. L., K. J. Boyle, et al. (1998). “A comparison of opinions of wildlife managers and the public on endangered species management.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(3): 605-613.
    Pierce, C. L. and M. J. Manfredo (1997). “A profile of North American wildlife agencies’ viewing programs.” Human Dimensions in Wildlife 2(3): 27-41.
    Pierce, G. J., C. J. Spray, et al. (1993). “The effect of fishing on the distribution and behaviour of waterbirds in the Kukut area of Lake Songkla, Southern Thailand.” Biological Conservation 66: 23-24.
    Pimmanrojnagool V, Wanghongsa S. (2001). A study of street wandering elephants in Bangkok and the socio-economic life of their mahouts. In: Baker I, Kashio M, eds. Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. 34-42
    Pintavongs, W., Chueplaivej, P., Boonyasart, B., Kidyhoo, S., Pravai, W., Rattanakunuprakarn, J., (2014). Domestic elephant population structure and health status in Thailand, J. Kasetsart Vet. 24, 16–24.
    Pires, N. M., Garla, R. C., & Carvalho, A. R. (2016). The economic role of sharks in a major ecotourism archipelago in the western South Atlantic. Marine Policy, 72, 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.06.016
    Pirotta, E, New, L, Harwood, J, Lusseau, D. (2014). Activities, motivations and disturbance: An agent-based model of bottlenose dolphin behavioral dynamics and interactions with tourism in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Ecological Modelling, vol. 282, pp. 44-58.
    Pirotta, E. & Lusseau, D (2015) Managing the wildlife tourism commons, Ecological Applications, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 729-741.
    Pirotta, E. & Lusseau, D (2015). Managing the wildlife tourism commons, Ecological Applications, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 729-741.
    Pleumarom, A. (1994). “The Policitcal Economy of Tourism.” The Ecologist 24(4): 142-148.
    Poland, R. H. C., G. B. Hall, et al. (1996). “Turtles and tourists: a hands-on experience of conservation for sixth formers from King’s College, Taunton, on the lonian Island of Zakynthos.” Journal of Biological Education 30(2): 120-128.
    Polovina, J., Balazs, G., Howell, E., Parker, D., Seki, M., Dutton, P. (2004). Forage and migration habitat of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles in the central North Pacific Ocean. Fish. Oceanogr. 13, 36-51.
    Polverino, G., Manciocco, A., Alleva, E. (2012). Effects of spatial and social restrictions on the presence of stereotypies in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): a pilot study. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 24, 39-53.
    Polverino, G., Manciocco, A., Vitale, A., Alleva, E., (2015). Stereotypic behaviours in Melopsittacus undulatus: Behavioural consequences of social and spatial limitations. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 165, 143-155.
    Pomerantz, G. A., D. J. Decker, et al. (1988). “Assessing impact of recreation on wildlife: a classification scheme.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 16: 58-62.
    Pomerantz, O., Meiri, S., Terkel, J. (2013). Socio-ecological factors correlate with levels of stereotypic behavior in zoo-housed primates. Behav. Process. 98, 85-91.
    Pont, A. C., Marchini, S., Engel, M. T., & Machado, R. (2016). The human dimension of the conflict between fishermen and South American sea lions in southern Brazil. Hydrobiologia, 770(1), 89–104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-015-2576-7
    Portugal, S., Isaac, R., Quinton, K., Reynolds, S. (2010). Do captive waterfowl alter their behaviour patterns during their flightless period of moult? J. Ornithol. 151, 443-448.
    Potts, F. C., H. Goodwin, et al. (1996). People, wildlife and tourism in and around Hwange National park, Zimbabwe. People and tourism in fragile environments. M. F. Price. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: 199-219.
    Powell, D. M., & Bullock, E. V. (2014). “Evaluation of factors affecting emotional responses in zoo visitors and the impact of emotion on conservation mindedness.” Anthro- zoös 27(3), 389-405.
    Powell, R. B., & Ham, S. H. (2008). Can ecotourism interpretation really lead to pro-conservation knowledge, attitudes and behaviour? Evidence from the Galapagos Islands. Journal of sustainable tourism, 16(4), 467-489.
    Powell, R. B., Brownlee, M. T. J., Kellert, S. R., & Ham, S. H. (2012). From awe to satisfaction: Immediate affective responses to the Antarctic tourism experience. The Polar Record, 48(2), 145. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0032247410000720
    Prakash, S. L., Perera, P., Newsome, D., & Kusuminda, T. (2018). Reasons for visitor dissatisfaction with wildlife tourism experiences at highly visited national parks in Sri Lanka. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2018.07.004
    Preece, N., P. van Oosterzee, et al. (1997, September 1997). “Biodiversity conservation and ecotourism: an investigation of linkages, mutual benefits and future opportunities.” Retrieved 5/12/99, 1999, from http://www.erin.gov.au/life/general_info/biodivers_5/two_con.html.
    Prescott, M., Nixon, M., Farningham, D., Naiken, S., Griffiths, M-A. (2012). Laboratory macaques: when to wean? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 137, 194-207.
    Price, R. (2018). Hubert Dick Brown 6 December 1930-14 December 2017 Obituary. AFRICAN ENTOMOLOGY, 26(2), 559–561. https://doi.org/10.4001/003.026.0559
    Prideaux, B., & Coghlan, A. (Alexandra). (2006). Wildlife tourism in tropical North Queensland. James Cook University.
    Prideaux, B., & Coghlan, Ali. (2006). Wildlife tourism in tropical North Queensland: An overview of visitor preferences for wildlife experiences. (Research report (James Cook University) ; 3). Cairns, Qld.: James Cook University.
    Prideaux, B., Pabel, A., & Sakata, H. (2018). The cassowary as a tourism icon: Opportunities and limitations. Journal of Ecotourism, 17(1), 43–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2016.1257628
    Prins, H. H. T. (1987). “Nature conservation as an integral part of optimal land use in East Africa: the case of the Masai ecosystem of northern Tanzania.” Biological Conservation 40(2): 141-161.
    Prosser, G. (1996). The Limits of Acceptable Change: An Introduction to a Framework for Natural Area Planning. Limits of Acceptable Change Study, Kingscote.
    Provost, S. (1997). Final Report on the Formation of an Independent Association for the Dolphin and Whale-based Tourism Industry. Central Tilba, NSW.
    Prunier, E. K., A. E. Sweeney, et al. (1993). “Tourism and the environment: the case of Zakynthos.” Tourism Management 14(2): 137-141.
    Qingming, C., Honggang, X., & Wall, G. (2012). A Cultural Perspective on Wildlife Tourism in China. Tourism Recreation Research, 37(1), 27–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2012.11081685
    QLD Dept of Environment (1996). Bright lights and sea turtle nesting don’t go together. Bundaberg, Dept of Environment and Wide Bay-Burnett Electricity Corporation: 2 A4.
    QLD Dept of Environment (1997). Conservation and Management of Whales and Dolphins in Queensland 1997-2001. Brisbane, QLD, QLD Dept of Environment.
    QLD Dept of Environment (1997). Tropical Topics: An interpretive newsletter for the tourism industry. Cairns, Qld Dept of Environment – Far Northern Region: 1-8.
    QLD Dept of Environment and Heritage (1992). Code of Practice of the Queensland Wildlife Parks Association: Minimum standards for exhibiting wildlife in Queensland. Brisbane, Queensland Government: 42 pages.
    QLD Dept Tourism Small Business and Industry (1997). Queensland Ecotourism Plan.
    QLD Government (1997). Nature Conservation (Whales and Dolphins) Conservation Plan 1997, Queenland Consolidated Regulations.
    QLD Government (1999). Nature Conservation (Macropod Harvesting) Conservation Plan 1994. Brisbane, Office of Qld Parliamentary Counsel: 16.
    QLD Parks and Wildlife Service (?). Are we loving our wildlife to death? Lamington NP, Qld Parks and Wildlife Service: 1.
    QLD Parks and Wildlife Service (1997). Conditions for glow worm cave: 1.
    QLD Parks and Wildlife Service (1997). Interpretive Program: Marine Turtles – Mon Repos Conservation Park Woongarra Marine Park. Bundaberg, QLD Parks and Wildlife Service,: 11.
    QLD Parks and Wildlife Service (1999). Be Dingo-Smart! Fraser Island World Heritage Area, QLD Parks and Wildlife Service.
    QLD Parks and Wildlife Service (2000). Benchmarking and Best Practice program: User-Pays Revenue, Qld Parks and Wildlife Service: 55.
    QLD Parks and Wildlife Service (2000). Master Plan for Queensland’s Parks System – Discussion Paper. Brisbane, Qld Parks and Wildlife Service: 81.
    QLD Parks and Wildlife Service (2000). Turtle Watching Guide: Mon Repos Conservation Park. Bundaberg, Qld Parks and Wildlife Service: 2 A4.
    Quirke, T., O’Riordan, R., Zuur, A. (2012). Factors influencing the prevalence of stereotypical behaviour in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 142, 189-197.
    Rafferty, M. (1993). A Geography of World Tourism. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
    Rai, N. D., Benjaminsen, T. A., Krishnan, S., & Madegowda, C. (2019). Political ecology of tiger conservation in India: Adverse effects of banning customary practices in a protected area. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 40(1), 124–139. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjtg.12259
    Rainbow, J., Buckley, R., Byrnes, T., Warnken, J. (?). Green Guide to Blue Seas: Best-practice Environmental Management for Small Boat Tours. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Rainbow, J., Warnken, J., Buckley, R. (?). Green Guide to Scuba Diving: Best-practice Environmental Management for Scuba Diving Tours. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    RAOU (1992). EMU: Journal of the Royal Australisian Ornithologists Union.
    Rastogi, A., Thapliyal, S., & Hickey, G. M. (2014). Community Action and Tiger Conservation: Assessing the Role of Social Capital. Society & Natural Resources, 27(12), 1271–1287. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2014.917753
    Rayment, M., Lewis, P., Henderson, R., & Broom, G. (2000). Valuing Norfolks coast: The economic benefits of environmental and wildlife tourism.
    Reading, R. P. Brian Miller, B. and Shepherdson, D. (2013) The Value of Enrichment to Reintroduction Success. Zoo Biology 9999: 1–10
    Reading, R. P., Kenny, D. E., & Fitzgerald, K. T. (2013). The crucial contribution of veterinarians to conservation biology. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 28, 131–4.
    Reamer, L., Tooze, Z., Coulson, C., Semple, S. (2010). Correlates of self-directed and stereotypic behaviours in captive red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 124, 68-74.
    Rees, P. (2004). Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci. 7, 49-58.
    Reijnen, R. and R. Foppen (1994). “The effects of car traffic on breeding bird populations in woodland.” Journal of Applied Ecology 31: 85-94.
    Reisinger, Y., & Steiner, C. (2006). Reconceptualising interpretation: The role of tour guides in authentic tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 9(6), 481–498.
    Responsive Management Inc. (2005). Securing a Future for Fish, Wildlife, and Natural Resources in the 21st Century. Responsive Management Report. Spring 2005.
    Results for “wildlife tourism” – Griffith University | Library catalogue. (n.d.). Retrieved June 18, 2019, from https://griffith-summon-serialssolutions-com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/search?s.q=wildlife+tourism&search-type=all#!/search?ho=f&l=en-AU&q=wildlife%20tourism
    Revord Larkin, L. (2014). Human-Wildlife Conflict in Maasai Mara National Reserve: Demonstrating the Need for an International Framework on Wildlife-Based Tourism. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, 17(1–2), 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880292.2014.932166
    Reynolds, P. C. and D. Braithwaite (2001). “Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism.” Tourism Management 22: 31-42.
    “Reynolds, P. C., & Braithwaite, D. (2001). Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism. Tourism management, 22(1), 31-42.

    Rice, N. (1996). “A Precautionary Approach to Whale Watching is Needed.” African Wildlife 50(6): 22.
    Richardson, J. A. (1998). “Wildlife utilization and biodiversity conservation in Namibia: Conflicting or complementary objectives?” Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 549-559.
    Richter et al (2001). A review of methodologies employed to assess impacts of boat-based marine mammal-watching activities on cetaceans, Environmental Science, University of Otago, New Zealand: 1-32.
    Ringer, G. (2002). “Gorilla Tourism: Uganda uses tourism to recover from decades of violent conflict.” Alternatives Journal 28(4): 17-21.
    Risbey, D., Short, J., & Turner, B. (2002). Control of feral cats for nature conservation. Trapping WildlifeResearch, 29(5), 475–487.
    Robbins, E. (1997). Whale Watch – Pursued to the Brink of Extinction, Cetaceans Fight for Survial Against Man-Made Odds. E Magazine. May/June: 29-35.
    Robertson, B. (1989). Marketing Perspectives on Tourism in National Parks. National Parks and Tourism. P. Bateson, S. Nyman and Sheppard, NPWS NSW: 31.
    Robertson, C. (1992). Effects of nature tourism on marine wildlife. Marine Conservation and Wildlife Protection Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, New Zealand Conservation Authority.
    Robinson, A. M. (1999). Collaborating Online – A New Way of Doing Business. 7th National Conference of the Ecotourism Association of Australia, Fraser Island, QLD.
    Robinson, M., 1998. Enriching the lives of zoo animals, and their welfare: where research can be fundamental. ‎Anim. Welf. 7, 151-175.
    Rockel, M. L. and M. J. Kealy (1991). “The value of nonconsumptive wildlife recreation in the United States.” Land Economics 67(4): 422-434.
    Rodger, K. et al (2010). A framework to guide the sustainability of wildlife tourism operations : Examples of marine wildlife tourism in Western Australia . Gold Coast, Qld.: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Rodger, K. Moore, S. and Newsome, D. (2007) Wildlife Tours in Australia: characteristics, the place of science and sustainable futures. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15 (2): 169-179.
    Rodger, K., Moore, S. (2004). Bringing Science to Wildlife Tourism: The Influence of Managers’ and Scientists’ Perceptions. Journal of Ecotourism 3.1 (2004): 1-19.
    Rodger, K., Moore, S. A. & Newsome, D. (2009). “Wildlife Tourism, Science and Actor Network Theory.” Annals of Tourism Research 36 (4): 658-664
    Rodger, K., Moore, S. A., & Newsome, D. (2010). Wildlife Tourism Science and Scientists: Barriers and Opportunities. SOCIETY & NATURAL RESOURCES, 23(8), 679–694. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920802438600
    Rodger, K., Moore, S. and Newsome, D. (2010) Wildlife tourism science and scientists: the barriers and the opportunities Society and Natural Resources. 23 (8)
    Rodger, K., Smith, A., Newsome, D. and Moore, S.A. (2011) Developing and testing an assessment framework to guide the sustainability of the marine wildlife tourism industry. Journal of Ecotourism, 10 (2). pp. 149-164
    Rodger, Kate, & Moore, S. A. (2004). Bringing science to wildlife tourism: The influence of managers’ and scientists’ perceptions. Journal of Ecotourism, 3(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040408668147
    Roe, D. (1997). Take only photographs, leave only footprints: the environmental impacts of wildlife tourism (No. 10). Iied.
    Roe, D., Leader-Williams, N., & Dalal-Clayton, D. B. (D B. (1997). Take only photographs, leave only footprints. Environmental Planning Group, International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Roe, D., N. Leader-Williams, et al., Eds. (1997). Take Only Photographs, Leave Only Footprints: the environmental impacts of wildlife tourism. IIED ( International Institute for Environemt and Development) Wildlife and Development Series No 10, September 1997. London, Environmental Planning Group.
    Roe, K., & McConney, A. (2015). “Do zoo visitors come to learn? an internationally comparative, mixed-methods study.” Environmental Education Research, 21(6), 865-884.
    Roe, K., McConney, A., & Mansfield, C. F. (2014). “The role of zoos in modern society. A comparison of zoos’ reported priorities and what visitors believe they should be.” Anthrozoös 27(4), 529-541.
    Roggenbuck, J. W. (1997). Use of Persuasion to Reduce Resource Impacts and Visitor Conflicts. Influencing Human Behavior: Theory and applications in recreation, tourism and natural resource management, Sugamore, Champaign, USA. M. J. Manfredo: 149-208.
    Rollinson, D.J., O’Leary, R. & Jones. D.N. 2003, ‘The practice of wildlife feeding in suburban Brisbane’, Corella, Vol. 27 pp. 52-58
    Rommeck, I., Anderson, K., Heagerty, A., Cameron, A., McCowan, B. (2009). Risk factors and remediation of self-injurious and self-abuse behavior in rhesus macaques. J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci. 12, 61-72.
    Rooks, C., Marvin, G., Ross, C., & Skinner, J. (2019). Insight into Africa. In Positive Tourism in Africa (pp. 91–98). Routledge.
    Roper, A. (2015). Do captive wildfowl with restrained flight alter their behavior patterns compared to wild species of wildfowl? Unpublished thesis, Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Rose, P. E., Nash, S. M. and Riley, L. N. (2017) To pace or not to pace? A review of what Abnormal Repetitive Behavior tells us about zoo animal management. Journal of Veterinary Behavior Clinical Applications and Research 20. DOI:10.1016/j.jveb.2017.02.007
    Rose, P., Brereton, J., Gardner, L. (2016). Developing flamingo husbandry practices through workshop communication. JZAR 4, 115-121.
    Rose, P., Cameron, L. (2012). Welfare integration into conservation biology: evaluation of enclosure suitability for endangered pheasants. ‎Anim. Welf. 21, 185.
    Rose, P., Croft, D. (2015). The potential of Social Network Analysis as a tool for the management of zoo animals. ‎Anim. Welf. 24, 123-138.
    Rose, P., Croft, D., Lee, R. (2014). A review of captive flamingo (Phoenicopteridae) welfare: a synthesis of current knowledge and future directions. Int. Zoo Yearb. 48, 139-155.
    Rose, P., Evans, C., Coffin, R., Miller, R., Nash, S. (2014). Evidence-basing exhibition of reptiles and amphibians using student-lead research: three species-specific case studies. JZAR 2, 25-32.
    Rose, P., Hummel, J., Clauss, M. (2006). Food and calculated energy intake in captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the UK, 6th Congress of the European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians, Budapest, p. 289.
    Rose, P., Robert, R. (2013). Evaluating the activity patterns and enclosure usage of a little-studied zoo species, the sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii). JZAR 1, 14-19.
    Rosier, R., Langkilde, T. (2011). Does environmental enrichment really matter? A case study using the eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 131, 71-76.
    Ross, S. (2006). Issues of choice and control in the behaviour of a pair of captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Behav. Process. 73, 117-120.
    Rothfels, N. (2002). Savages and beasts: The birth of the modern zoo. JHU Press.
    Rowan, A. N. and A. M. Beck (?). “Editorial: The health benefits of human-animal interactions.” Anthrozoos 7(2): 85-89.
    Roy, M., R. Petty, et al. (1997). “Traveling Boxes: A New Tool for Environmental Education.” The Journal of Environmental Education 28(4): 9-17.
    RSPCA, A. (2004). Animals used for sport and entertainment. Policies and Position Papers- 2004 Edition. Deakin West ACT, RSPCA Australia: 93-98.
    RSPCA, A. (2004). Wildlife. Policies and Position Papers – 2004 Edition. Deakin West ACT, RSPCA: 105-118.
    Rushen, J., Mason, G. (2008). A decade-or-more’s progress in understanding stereotypic behaviour. In: Mason, G., Rushen, J., (Ed.), Stereotypic animal behaviour: fundamentals and applications to welfare, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 1-18.
    Russell, C. L. and M. J. Ankenman (1996). “Orangutans as photographic collectibles: ecotourism and the commodification of nature.” Tourism Recreation Research 21(1): 71-78.
    Ryan, C. (1991). Chapter 6: The ecological impacts of tourism. Recreational Tourism: A social science perspective. C. Ryan. London, Routledge: 96-99, 106-109.
    Ryan, C. (1998). “Saltwater Crocodiles as Tourist Attractions.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 6(4): 314-327.
    Ryan, C. (1999). Australian Tourists and their interest in wildlife based tourist attractions: An interim report. Waikato, New Zealand, University of Waikato: 1-24.
    Ryan, C. and K. Harvey (2000). “Who likes saltwater crocodiles? Analysing socio-demographics of those viewing tourist wildlife attractions based on saltwater crocodiles.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8(5): 426-433.
    Ryan, C., Hughes, K., & Chirgwin, S. (2000). The gaze, spectacle and ecotourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(1), 148–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00061-4
    Ryan, C., K. Hughes, et al. (?). “The Gaze”, Spectacle and Eco-tourism. New Zealand, University of Waikato.
    SA Department of Environment and Heritage – Australian Antarctic Division (2003). Environmental Requirements for Aircraft Operations in the Australian Antarctic Territory. ?, Department of the Environment and Heritage: 1-11.
    SA Department of Environment and Heritage (?). The Australian Bush Country Code, SA Department of the Environment and Heritage.
    SA Department of Environment and Heritage (2002). Minimum Impact Code for wilderness use in South Australia. ?, SA Department for Environment and Heritage.
    SA Department of Environment and Heritage (2006). Please Don’t Feed the Wildlife! Inside Parks. Summer: p4.
    SA Department of Environment and Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs (1999). South Australia’s National Parks: The Spirit of our Great South Land. Adelaide, SA.
    SA Department of Environment and Heritage, S. A. (2001). The National Parks Code. ?, Department of Environment and Heritage, South Australia: 1.
    SA Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Whale Watchers Information Kit. Adelaide, SA.
    SA Government of South Australia (?). South Australia’s Dive Secrets. Adelaide, Government of South Australia.
    SA National Parks and Wildlife (?). The Parks Agenda – Keeping our Future Alive. Adelaide, SA.
    SA National Parks and Wildlife (?). Wildlife Watching Guidelines: Kangaroo Island.
    SA National Parks and Wildlife (1999). “Parks & Wildlife.” The Journal of National Parks and Wildlife, South Australia Winter: 17.
    SA National Parks and Wildlife (2001). Walking Trails in Kangaroos Island Parks, Dept of Environment and Heritage.
    SA National Parks and Wildlife (2003). Discovering Penguin Tours, Kangaroo Island. Kingscote, South Australia Government: 1-3.
    SA The International Council for Local Environment Initiatives (1997). The South Australian Urban Forest Biodiversity Program. Adelaide: 24.
    SA Tourism Commission (?). Ecotourism: A natural strategy for South Australia. South Australia: 12.
    SA Tourism Commission (?). Nature Based Tourism Strategy. Adelaide: 40.
    SA Tourism Commission (1995). Preliminary key indicator study ecotourism and Kangaroo Island.
    SA Tourism Commission (1996). Limits of Acceptable Change Study for Kangaroo Island.
    SA Tourism Commission (2001). Birdwatching Tourism Opportunities for South Australia. Adelaide, SATC.
    Saad M, Rasip A. (1995). First captive breeding of the black hornbill at Jurong Birdpark. AFA Watchbird 22(2), 57-59
    Saarinen, J. (2015). Conflicting limits to growth in sustainable tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(10), 903–907. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2014.972344
    Saharia, V. B. (1983). Human dimensions in wildlife management: the Indian experience. National Parks, Conservation and Development. The Role of Protected Areas in Sustaining Society, Bali, Indonesia, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
    Samways, M. J. and S. D. Moore (1991). “Influence of exotic conifer patches on grasshopper (Orthoptera) assemblages in grassland matrix at a recreational resort, Natal, South Africa.” Biological Conservation 57: 117-137.
    Sandøe, P., & Christiansen, S. B. (2008). Ethics of Animal Use. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Professional.
    Savannah Guides Ltd (2003). Looking out for wildlife. Savannah Guides Communication. January.
    Savory, C., Kostal, L. (1996). Temporal patterning of oral stereotypies in restricted-fed fowls: 1. Investigations with a single daily meal. Int. J. of Comp. Psych. 9, 117-139.
    Sawynok, B. (1998). The Importance of river health for recreational fishing. Habitat Australia.
    Saxby, A., Adams, L., Snellgrove, D., Wilson, R., Sloman, K. (2010). The effect of group size on the behaviour and welfare of four fish species commonly kept in home aquaria. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 125, 195-205.
    Scarpa, R., Notaro, S., Louviere, J. and Raffaelli, R. (2011). “Exploring scale efforts of best/worst rank ordered choice data to estimate benefits of tourism in alpine grazing commons.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 93 (3): 813-828
    Schanzel, H. A. and A. J. McIntosh (2000). “An Insight into the Personal and Emotive Context of Wildlife Viewing at the Penguin Place, Otago Peninsula, New Zealand.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8(1): 36-52.
    Schmidt-Burbach, J., Ronfot, D., and Srisangiam. R., (2015). Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare. PLoS ONE 10:9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139092
    Schubert, D. J. and J. Smith (2001). The Impacts of Off-Road Vehicle Noise on Wildlife.
    Scott, G., Hull, S., Rollinson, D. (1998). Surface breaking behaviour in a population of captive rays, Raja: the expression of a need to forage? Aquarium Sci. Conserv. 2, 161-169.
    Scott, G., Rollinson, D., Hull, S. (1998). Modification in feeding regime reduces the performance of surface breaking behaviour in a population of captive rays (Raja). Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 2, 171-174.
    Scott, R. (2016). Enclosure useage by giant snakes. In: Tapley, B., Redbond, J., (Ed.), BIAZA Reptile & Amphibian Working Group Meeting. Crocodiles of the World, Oxfordshire, UK.
    Scottish Natural Heritage and Tourism and the Environment Initiative (1998). Marine wildlife tourism: Developing a high quality approach in the Highlands and Islands.
    Scrase, D. (1995). Chapter 3: Phillip Island Penguin Reserve. Sustainable tourism: an Australian perspective. R. Harris and N. Leiper. Sydney, Butterworth-Heinemann: 20-26.
    Sebele, L. (2010). “Community-based tourism ventures, benefits and challenges: Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Central District, Botswana.” Tourism Management 31 (1): 136-146.
    Seibert, L. (2006). Social behaviour of psittacine birds. In: Luescher, A.U. (Ed.), Manual of Parrot Behaviour Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp. 43-48.
    Sekercioglu, C. H. (2002). Impacts of birdwatching on human and avian communities. Environmental conservation, 29(3), 282-289.
    Sekercioglu, C., H. (2002). “Impacts of birdwatching on human and avian communities.” Environmental Conservation 29(3): 282-289.
    Sekhar, N. U. (2003). Local people’s attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism around Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of environmental Management, 69(4), 339-347.
    Semeniuk, C. A. D., Haider, W., Beardmore, B., & Rothley, K. D. (2009). A multi-attribute trade-off approach for advancing the management of marine wildlife tourism: A quantitative assessment of heterogeneous visitor preferences. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 19(2), 194–208. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.990
    Semeniuk, C. A. D., Haider, W., Cooper, A., & Rothley, K. D. (2010). A linked model of animal ecology and human behavior for the management of wildlife tourism. Ecological Modelling, 221(22), 2699–2713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.07.018
    Semeniuk, C., Bourgeon, S., Smith, S. and Rothley, K. (2009). “Hematological differences between stingrays at tourist and non-visited sites suggest physiological costs of wildlife tourism.” Biological Conservation 142 (8): 1818-1829.
    Semeniuk, C., Haider, W., Cooper, A. and Rothley, K. (2010). “A linked model of animal ecology and human behaviour for the management of wildlife tourism.” Ecological Modelling 221 (22): 2699-2713
    Semeniuk, C.A.D., Haider, W., Beardmore, B., Rothley, K. (2009). A Multi‐attribute Trade‐off Approach for Advancing the Management of Marine Wildlife Tourism: A Quantitative Assessment of Heterogeneous Visitor Preferences. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19.2 (2009): 194-208.
    Serpell, J. (1986). In the Company of Animals: A Study of Human-Animal Relationships, Basil Blackwell Ltd, Oxford.
    Shackley, M (1996). Wildlife tourism, International Thomson Business Press, Melbourne, [Vic.]; London.
    Shackley, M. (1992). “Manatees and Tourism in Southern Florida: Opportunity or Threat?” Environmental Management 34: 257-265.
    Shackley, M. (1995). “The future of gorilla tourism in Rwanda.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 3(2): 61-72.
    Shackley, M. (2001). Flagship Species: Case Studies in Wildlife Tourism Management (Book and on CD). Vermount, The International Ecotourism Society.
    Shafer, E. L., R. Carline, et al. (1993). “Economic amenity values of wildlife: Six case studies in Pennsylvania.” Environmental Management 17(5): 669-682.
    Shah, A. (1995). The Economics of Third World National Parks : Issues of Tourism and Environmental Management. Aldershot: E. Elgar.
    Shariati-Najafabadi, M., Darvishzadeh, R., Skidmore, A., Kölzsch, A., Exo, K-M., Nolet, B., Griffin, L., Stahl, J., Havinga, P., Meratnia, N., Toxopeus, A. (2016). Environmental parameters linked to the last migratory stage of barnacle geese en route to their breeding sites. Anim. Behav. 118, 81-95.
    Shaw, W. W. (?). The Recreational Benefits of Wildlife to People. The Recreational Benefits of Wildlife: 209-213.
    Shen, J.-Y., Cui, G.-F., Liu, R.-Z., & Qu, H. (2016). Distribution of wildlife along tourism routes in Beijing Songshan National Nature Reserve. Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 38(7), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.13332/j.1000-1522.20150247
    Shepherdson D. (1994). The role of environmental enrichment in the captive breeding and reintroduction of endangered species. In: Olney P.J.S., Mace G.M., Feistner A.T.C. (eds) Creative Conservation. Springer, Dordrecht
    Shepherdson, D., Lewis, K., Carlstead, K., Bauman, J., Perrin, N. (2013). Individual and environmental factors associated with stereotypic behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in zoo housed polar bears. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 147, 268-277.
    Sheppard, V. A., & Fennell, D. A. (2019). Progress in tourism public sector policy: Toward an ethic for non-human animals. Tourism Management, 73, 134–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.11.017
    Showell, N. (1992). Penguins Bound for Star Tourism Billing. Australian Tourism Monitor: 31.
    Shurcliff, K. and A. William (1991). Managing Ecotourism in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park – can we manage it together? Ecotourism: incorporating The Global Classroom Conference, Brisbane, BTR.
    Shutt, K. A. (2014). Wildlife tourism and conservation: An interdisciplinary evaluation of gorilla ecotourism in dzanga-sangha, central african republic. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
    Shutt, K., Heistermann, M., Kasim, A., & Todd, A. (2014). Effects of habituation, research and ecotourism on faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in wild western lowland gorillas: Implications for conservation management. Biological Conservation, 172, 72–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.02.014
    Simmons, M. (1996). Humpback Whales, Out of the Blue. Brisbane, QLD, QLD Dept of Environment.
    Sinclair, J. 2001, ‘Park Management Crisis: Fraser Island Dingoes’, Wildlife Australia, Vol. 39 pp. 12 – 15
    Sindiga, I. (1995). “Wildlife based tourism in Kenya: land use conflicts and government compensation policies over protected areas.” Journal of Tourism Studies 6(2): 45-55.
    Sindiyo, D. M. and F. N. Pertet (1984). “Tourism and its impact on wildlife conservation in Kenya.” UNEP Industry and Environment January/February/March: 14-18.
    Sinha, B. C., Qureshi, Q., Uniyal, V. K., & Sen, S. (2012). Economics of wildlife tourism – contribution to livelihoods of communities around Kanha tiger reserve, India. Journal of Ecotourism, 11(3), 207–218. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2012.721785
    Sinha, C. C. (2001). Wildlife tourism: A geographical perspective. Geography Curriculum Inservice Conference, “Tourism Geography: Issues, Challenges and the Changing Nature of Contemporary Tourism, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney.
    Skibins J. C. and R. B. Powell. 2013. “Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors’ connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviours.” Zoo Biology 32, 528-40.
    Skibins, J. C., & Sharp, R. L. (2017). Evaluation of the Brown Bear Viewing Experience at Katmai National Park and Preserve: Implications for Management. HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF WILDLIFE, 22(5), 476–482. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2017.1336584
    Skibins, J., Powell, C., & Hallo, R. (2013). Charisma and conservation: Charismatic megafauna’s influence on safari and zoo tourists’ pro-conservation behaviors. Biodiversity and Conservation, 22(4), 959-982.
    Skibins, J., Powell, C., Hallo, R. (2013). Charisma and conservation: Charismatic megafauna’s influence on safari and zoo tourists’ pro-conservation behaviors. Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 22(4), pp. 959-982.
    Skibins, J., Powell, R., & Hallo, J. (2016). Lucky 13: Conservation implications of broadening “Big 5” flagship species recognition in East Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(7), 1024–1040. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2015.1101126
    Skibins, Jeffery C., & Sharp, R. L. (2019). Binge watching bears: Efficacy of real vs. virtual flagship exposure. Journal of Ecotourism, 18(2), 152–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2018.1553977
    Skira, I. & Smith, S. 1991, ‘Feeding Wildlife in National Parks’, 5th Australasian Regional Seminar on National Parks and Wildlife Management, Tasmania, pp. 182 – 187
    Smith, A, Lee, D, Newsome, D & Stoekl, N, (2006). Production and Consumption of wildlife icons: Dolphin tourism at Monkey Mia, Western Australia. In: Kevin Meethan, Alison Anderson and Steve Miles (Eds) Tourism, Consumption and Representation. pp. 113-139. CABI Publishing, UK
    Smith, J., Griffiths, A. (2009). Determinants of home range and activity in two semi‐aquatic lizards. J. Zool. 279, 349-357.
    Smith, K. R., Scarpaci, C., Scarr, M. J., & Otway, N. M. (2014). Scuba diving tourism with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) off eastern Australia: Tourist demographics, shark behaviour and diver compliance. Tourism Management, 45, 211–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.05.002
    Smith, K., Scarr, M., Scarpaci, C. (2010). Grey Nurse Shark (Carcharias Taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia. Environmental Management 46.5 (2010): 699-710.
    Smith, L. D. G., Curtis. J., Mair. J., and van Dijk, P. A. (2012) Requests for zoo visitors to undertake pro-wildlife behaviour: How many is too many? Tourism Management 331502e1510
    Smith, L., & Broad, S. (2007). “Do zoo visitors attend to conservation messages? A case study of an elephant exhibit.” Tourism Review International, 11(3), 225-235.
    Smith, L., & Monash University degree granting institution. (2004). A Qualitative Analysis of Profound Wildlife Encounters. Monash University Dept of Management
    Smith, L., Broad, S., & Weiler, B. (2008). “A closer examination of the impact of zoo visits on visitor behaviour.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 16(5), 544-562.
    Smith, L., Newsome, D., & Lee, D. (2014). The Development of an Interpretive Experience to Foster Positive Tourist Encounters and Manage Turtle Tourism in Northwest Western Australia: Implications for Further Research. Tourism in Marine Environments, 10(1), 31–48. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441707
    Snepenger, D. J. and R. T. Bowyer (1990). “Differences among nonresident tourists making consumptive and nonconsumptive uses of Alaskan wildlife.” Arctic 43(3): 262-266.
    Snyder, H. A. and N. F. R. Snyder (1974). “Increased mortality of Cooper’s hawks accustomed to man.” Condor 76: 215-216.
    Sofield, T. and D. Getz (?). Rural Tourism in Australia: the Undara Experience.
    Solstrand, M.-V. (2015). Institutional challenges for effective governance of consumptive wildlife tourism: Case studies of marine angling tourism in Iceland and Norway. Maritime Studies, 14(1), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40152-015-0021-1
    Solstrand, M.-V., & Gressnes, T. (2014). Marine angling tourist behavior, non-compliance, and implications for natural resource management. Tourism Management, 45, 59–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.03.014
    Sorice, M., Shafer, C., Ditton, R. (2006). Managing Endangered Species Within the Use–Preservation Paradox: The Florida Manatee ( Trichechus Manatus Latirostris ) as a Tourism Attraction. Environmental Management 37.1 (2006): 69-83.
    Sosinski, C. (2011). Wildlife Tourism in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
    Sournia, G. (1996). “Wildlife Tourism in West and Central Africa.” Ecodecision Leisure and Environment 20: 52-55.
    Southgate, D. and M. Whitaker (1994). Tourism and species preservation in the Galapagos. Economic progress and the environment one developing country’s policy crisis. New York, USA, Oxford University Press: 101-109.
    Spring, J. P. (2017). Making Sense of a Wildlife Tourism Experience: A Study of Guide-visitor Interactions. Auckland University of Technology.
    Stafford, K. J. (2013). Animal Welfare in New Zealand. New Zealand Society of Animal Production. Palmerston North.
    Stagegaard, J., Kurth, A., Stern, D., & Dabrowski, P. W. (2017). Seasonal recurrence of cowpox virus outbreaks in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). PloS One, 12(11), e0187089.
    Stanley, J. & Seipen, G. 1996, ‘Please…..don’t feed the animals’, Ranger, No. 35, pp. 22- 24
    Start, T., J. Courtney, et al. (?). It’s back …. The return of the Woylie. Perth, WA, CALM.
    Steger, C., Butt, B., Hooten, M. B., & du Toit, J. (2017). Safari Science: Assessing the reliability of citizen science data for wildlife surveys. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54(6), 2053–2062. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12921
    Steidl, R. J. and R. G. Anthony (1996). “Responses of Bald Eagles to human activity during the summer in interior Alaska.” Ecological Appplications 6(2): 482-491.
    Steiner, A. J. and S. P. Leatherman (1981). “Recreational impacts on the distribution of ghost crabs Ocypode quadrata fab.” Biological Conservation 20: 111-122.
    Stephenson, P. J. (1993). “The impacts of tourism on nature reserves in Madagascar, Perinet: a case study.” Environmental Conservation 20: 262-265.
    Stevens, P. M. C. and E. McAlister (2003). “Ethics in zoos.” International Zoo Yearbook 38: 94-101.
    Stirling, E. (1998). “Understanding Whale Behaviour.” GEO Australasia 20(4): 24-32.
    Stockwell, C. A., G. C. Bateman, et al. (1991). “Conflicts in national parks: a case study of helicopters and bighorn sheep time budgets in the Grand Canyon.” Biological Conservation 56: 317-328.
    Stoeckl, N., Birtles, A., Farr, M., Mangott, A., Curnock, M. and Valentine, P. (2010). “Live-aboard dive boats in the Great Barrier Reef: regional economic impact and the relative values of their target marine species.” Tourism Economics 16 (4): 995-1018.
    Stoeckl, N., Smith, A., Newsome, D. and Lee, D. (2005) Regional economic dependence on iconic wildlife tourism: case studies of Monkey Mia and Hervey Bay. Journal of tourism studies 16: 69-81.
    Stoinski, T. S., Ogden, J. J., Gold, K. C., & Maple, T. L. 2001. “Captive apes and zoo education.” In B. B. Beck et al. (eds.), Great apes & humans: The ethics of coexistence. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 113–132.
    Stokes, T, Dobbs, K, Recchia, C (2002). Management of marine mammal tours on the Great Barrier Reef. Australian Mammology, v 24, pp39 – 49.
    Stone, L., & Stone, M. (2017). Wildlife Tourism. In The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Travel and Tourism: T-Z, Index (pp. 1436–1439).
    Stonehouse, B. (2001). Polar Environments. The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism. D. Weaver. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
    Stork, N. (2000). Secret lives in our rainforest. The Australian: 31.
    Sukumar, R. (1989). Ecology of the Asian elephant in southern India. I. Movement and habitat utilization patterns. J. Trop. Ecol. 5, 1-18.
    Suni, J., & Pesonen, J. (2019). Hunters as tourists – an exploratory study of push-pull motivations. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM, 19(2), 175–191. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2017.1407668
    SUNY Buffalo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-038.
    Suresh, K. T., Liyakhat, S., & Roy, S. (2002). Indigenous peoples, wildlife & ecotourism. Equations.
    Surinova, M. (1971). An Analysis of the Popularity of Animals. International Zoo Yearbook, Zoological Society of London: 165-167.
    Sutherland, W. J. (1996). From Individual Behaviour to Population Ecology, Oxford University Press.
    Swaisgood, R., Shepherdson, D. (2005). Scientific approaches to enrichment and stereotypies in zoo animals: what’s been done and where should we go next? Zoo Biol. 24, 499-518.
    Swanagan, J. S.(2000). “Factors influencing zoo visitors’ conservation attitudes and behaviour.” The Journal of Environmental Education, 31(4), 26-31.
    Swaney, W., Kendal, J., Capon, H., Brown, C., Laland, K. (2001). Familiarity facilitates social learning of foraging behaviour in the guppy. Anim. Behav. 62, 591-598.
    Swanson, T. M. and E. B. Barbier (1992). Economics for the Wilds: wildlands, diversity and development. London, Earthscan Publications.
    Swanson, T. M., & Barbier, E. (1992). Economics for the wilds: Wildlife, wildlands, diversity and development. Earthscan.
    Szott, I. D., Pretorius, Y., & Koyama, N. F. (2019). Behavioural changes in African elephants in response to wildlife tourism. Journal of Zoology. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12661
    Tabata, R. S., J. Yamashiro, et al. (1992). Joining Hands for Quality Tourism: Interpretation, Preservation and the Travel Industry. Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress, Hawaii.
    Tambiah, C. R. (1990). Integrating Tourists, Local Communities and Sea Turtles: Facilitating Sustainable Programs. Ecotourism and Resource Conservation: A collection of papers. J. Kusler: 345-357.
    Tan, H., Ong, S., Langat, G., Bahaman, A., Sharma, R., Sumita, S. (2013). The influence of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour in captive Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus). Res. Vet. Sci. 94, 228-239.
    Tang, G. R., Zhang, J. H., & Zhang, Y. (2017). Livestock Animal Displacement on Rural Tourism Destinations: Placing Livestock’s “Pest” Role in the Background. SUSTAINABILITY, 9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081307
    Taplin, R. (In Press). “Competitive importance-performance analysis of an Australian wildlife park.” Tourism Management
    Tapper, R (2006). Wildlife watching and tourism : a study on the benefits and risks of a fast growing tourism activity and its impacts on species. United Nations Environment Programme ; Bonn : Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals.
    TAS Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment Tasmania (2003). Keeping Wildlife Wild. Hobart, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment: 1-3.
    TAS Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment Tasmania (2003). Penguin Watching Guidelines. Hobart, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment: 1-2.
    TAS Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment Tasmania (2003). Seal Watching Guidelines. Hobart, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment: 1-4.
    TAS Dept Tourism Sport and Recreation (?). Wildlife Watching in Tasmania: Itinerary Planning. Tasmania, Dept. of Tourism, Sport and Recreation, Tasmania.
    TAS Dept Tourism Sport and Recreation and J. Wilson (1995). Wildlife and Tourism Plan Tasmania, Australia. Tasmania, Dept. of Tourism, Sport and Recreation, Tasmania: 35 pages.
    TAS Parks and Wildlife Service (?). Little Penguin Viewing. Hobart, Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service: 2.
    TAS Parks and Wildlife Service (1997). Caring for Nature – Keep Wildlife Wild. Hobart, Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania: 2.
    TAS Parks and Wildlife Service (1997). One of the Wonder Spots of the World… Macquarie Island Nature Reserve, Dept of Environment and Land Mangement, Tasmania.
    TAS Tourism Tasmania (?). Nature: The Leading Edge for Regional Australia, Tourism Tasmania and TAS Parks and Wildlife Service and Tourism Council of Australia (Tasmania) and Department of Industry, Science and Resources.
    Taylor, A. R., & Knight, R. L. (2003). WILDLIFE RESPONSES TO RECREATION AND ASSOCIATED VISITOR PERCEPTIONS. Ecological Applications, 13(4), 951–963. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2003)13[951:WRTRAA]2.0.CO;2
    Taylor, B. (1997). Review of wildife tourism in Scotland.
    Taylor, B. (1999). Out and Back Again: Wildlife Tourism in Eastern Australia.
    Taylor, B. (2000). Developing the Potential – Wildlife Tourism in Caithness, North Highland College.
    Taylor, B. (2000). Outline Proposal for a Nature-based tourism initiative in the highlands and islands: 1-9.
    Taylor, J. G., K. J. Czarnowski, et al. (1995). “The importance of water to Rocky Mountain National Park visitors: an adaptation of visitor-employed photography to natural resources management.” Journal of Applied Recreation Research 20(1): 61-85.
    Taylor, V. J. and N. Dunstone (1996). The Exploitation of Mammal Populations. London, Chapman and Hall.
    TCA/CRC (1999). Interacting with Wildlife.
    Techera, E. J., & Klein, N. (2013). The role of law in shark-based eco-tourism: Lessons from Australia. Marine Policy, 39, 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.10.003
    Thapa, B., Aryal, A., Roth, M., & Morley, C. (2017). The contribution of wildlife tourism to tiger conservation (Panthera tigris tigris). Biodiversity, 18(4), 168–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2017.1410443
    The Ecotourism Society, V., USA, (1993). Ecotourism Guidelines for nature tour operators, The Ecotourism Society: 1-12.
    The Hindu Business Line: Sterling Holidays to focus on adventure, wildlife tourism. (2016). Newstex Global Business Blogs.
    The International Ecotourism Society (2001). An Introductory Fact Sheet on Marine Ecotourism, The International Ecotourism Society: 1-3.
    The World Conservation Union (IUCN) (2000). Financing Protected Areas – Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. Wales, UK, Cardiff University: 58.
    Thitaram, C., Dejchaisri S., Somgird C., Angkawanish T., Brown J., Phumphuay R., Chomdech S., Kangwanpong S. (2015). Social Group Formation and Genetic Relatedness in Reintroduced Asian Elephants (Elephas Maximus) in Thailand. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 172. 52–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2015.09.002.
    Thomas, L. N. (1990). Stress and population regulation in Isoodon obesulus (Shaw and Nodder). Bandicoots and Bilbies. J. H. Seebeck, P. R. Brown, R. L. Wallis and C. M. Kemper. Sydney, Surrey Beatty and Sons: 335-343 (only have page 335).
    Thompson, G., De Boer, M., Pianka, E. (1999). Activity areas and daily movements of an arboreal monitor lizard, Varanus tristis (Squamata: Varanidae) during the breeding season. Aust. J. Ecol. 24, 117-122.
    Thompson, J., Shirreffs, L., McPahial, I., (2003). “Dingoes on Fraser Island- Tourism Dream or Management Nightmare.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8(1): 37-47.
    Thomson, C. and R. Shepherd (1995). “Return to Eden.” Landscope 10(3): 22-27.
    Thomson, J. A., Araujo, G., Labaja, J., & McCoy, E. (2017). Feeding the world’s largest fish: Highly variable whale shark residency patterns at a provisioning site in the Philippines. Royal Society Open Science, 4(9). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.170394
    Thomspon, M. J. and R. E. Henderson (1998). “Elk habituation as a credibility challenge for wildlife professionals.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(3): 477-483.
    Thorsell, J. W. and J. A. McNeely (1988). Jungles, mountains and islands: how tourism can help conserve the natural heritage. The First Global Conference Tourism: A vital force for peace, Vancouver, Canada, IUCN and Natural Resources, Gland Switzerland.
    Thresher, P. (1981). “The economics of a lion.” Unasylva 33(134): 34-35.
    Tipprasert P. (2001). Elephants and ecotourism in Thailand. In: Baker I, Kashio M, eds. Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. 157-171
    Tisdell, C. (1996). “Ecotourism, Economics, and the Environment: Observations from China.” Journal of Travel Research 34(4): 11-19.
    Tisdell, C. (1998). Non-Consumption and Non-Use Values of Marine Resources with Particular Reference to Queensland and Australia. First Meeting of the Fish Stocks Commission of the World Humanity Action Trust, University of Queensland.
    Tisdell, C. (2010). Sharing nature’s wealth through wildlife tourism. School of Economics, Univ. of Queensland.
    Tisdell, C. (ed.) 2013. Handbook of Tourism Economics: Analysis, New Applications and Case Studies. World Scientific
    Tisdell, C. 2012. Economic benefits, conservation and wildlife tourism. Acta Turistica 4:127-148
    Tisdell, C. 2012. The Growing Importance of Nature-based Tourism: Its Evolution and Significant Policy Issues, Edward Elgar, Northampton, USA.
    Tisdell, C. 2014. Changed Values and Increased Support for Wildlife Conservation as a Result of Ecotourism: A Sea Turtle Study (Summary of Chapter 3 in Human Values and Biodiversity Conservation: The Survival of Wild Species), Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, USA.
    Tisdell, C. 2015. An Introduction to the Economic Issues Involved in Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functions, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham, UK.
    Tisdell, C. A. (Clement A., & Wilson, C. (2004). Economics, wildlife tourism and conservation. University of Queensland.
    Tisdell, C. and C. Wilson (2000). Economics, Ecology and the Environment: Developing ecotourism for the survival of sea turtles. Brisbane, University of Queensland.
    Tisdell, C. and C. WIlson (2001). “Wildlife-based tourism and increased support for nature conservation financially and otherwise: evidence from sea turtle ecotourism at Mon Repos.” Tourism Economics 7(3): 233-249.
    Tisdell, C. and C. Wilson (2001). Tourism and the conservation of sea turtles: an Australian case study. Tourism Economics, the Environment and Development: Analysis and Policy. C. Tisdell. UK, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd: 356-368.
    Tisdell, C. and C. Wilson (2002). Economic, Educational and Conservation Benefits of Sea Turtle Based Ecotourism: a study focused on Mon Repos. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-104.
    Tisdell, C. and Wilson, C. 2000. Economic, Educational and Conservation Benefits of Sea Turtle Based Ecotourism: A Study Focused on Mon Repos. Brisbane, University of Queensland: 1-70.
    Tisdell, C. and Wilson, C. 2012. Nature-based Tourism and Conservation: New Economic Insights and Case Studies, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham
    Tisdell, C., Wilson, C., (2004). Economics of Wildlife tourism -Chapter 8. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 145-163.
    Tisdell, Clement A., & Wilson, C. (2004). Economics, wildlife tourism and conservation: Three case studies.
    Tisdell, Clement Allan. (2012). Economic benefits, conservation and wildlife tourism. School of Economics University of Queensland.
    Titlow, B. and D. Titlow (1981). “Where have all the bears gone?” Parks 6(2): 15-16.
    Tkaczynski, A., & Rundle-Thiele, S. (2018). Identifying whale-watching tourist differences to maximize return on investment. Journal of Vacation Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766718814083
    Tongass National Forest Recreation (2001). Tips for Wildlife Viewing in Southeast Alaska, Tongass National Forest Recreation,: 1-3.
    Tongass National Forest Recreation (2001). Wildlife Viewing from a Boat, Tongass National Forest Recreation,: 1-2.
    Torreilles, S., Green, S. (2007). Refuge cover decreases the incidence of bite wounds in laboratory South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46, 33-36.
    Tourism Queensland (2002). Environmental Impact Monitoring, A Guide for Tourism Operators, Queensland Government, Environmental Protection Agency.
    Tourism, W. (2000). Increased Tourist Support for Nature Conservation Financially and Otherwise: Evidence from Sea Turtle Ecotourism at Mon Repos by Clem Tisdell and Clevo Wilson. November.
    Townsend, C. (2003). Chapter 8: Marine Ecotourism through Education: A Case Study of Divers in the British Virgin Islands. Marine Ecotourism Issues and Experiences. B. Garrod, Wilson, J.C. Church Point, Channel View Publications: 138, 147-152.
    Tremblay, J. and L. N. Ellison (1979). “Effects of human disturbance on breeding of black-crowned night herons.” The Auk 96: 364-369.
    Tremblay, P. (2001), Wildlife tourism consumption: consumptive or non-consumptive? International Journal of Tourism Research, 3: 81–86.
    Tremblay, P. (2002). Tourism wildlife icons: attractions or marketing symbols?, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 164.
    Tremblay, P. (2008). Wildlife in the landscape: A top end perspective on destination-level wildlife and tourism management. Journal of Ecotourism, 7(2–3), 179–196. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040802140535
    Treves, A. ; Wallace, R.B; White, S.(05/15/2009).”Participatory Planning of Interventions to Mitigate Human–Wildlife Conflicts.” Conservation Biology
    Tribe, A. (2001). Captive wildlife tourism in Australia. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Tribe, A. (2001). Captive Wildlife Tourism in Australia. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 1-41.
    Tribe, A. (2004). Zoo Tourism -Chapter 3. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 35-56.
    Tribe, A., Booth, R., (2003). “Assessing the Role of Zoos in Wildlife COnservation.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8(1): 65-74.
    Tucker, M. (1989). Whales and Whale Watching in Australia. Canberra, ACT, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
    Tuite, C. H., P. R. Hanson, et al. (1984). “Some ecological factors affecting winter wildfowl distribution on inland waters in England and Wales, and the influence of water-based recreation.” Journal of Applied Ecology 21: 41-62.
    Turley, S. K. (2001). Children and the demand for recreational experiences: The case of zoos. Leisure Studies, 20(1), 1-18.
    Turner, C., Davenport Jr, R., Rogers, C. (1969). The effect of early deprivation on the social behavior of adolescent chimpanzees. Am. J. Psychiatry 125, 1531-1536.
    Turner, M. and C. Speedie (1999). Doing it privately or publicly? Can private enterprise replace government interpretation of natural and cultural resources? Interpretation Australia Association National Conference: The Human Factor in Interpretation, Hobart, Interpretation Australia Association.
    Twining-Ward, L., Li, W., Bhammar, H., & Wright, E. (2018). Supporting Sustainable Livelihoods through Wildlife Tourism.
    Tzilkowski, W. M. and F. F. Knowlton (1979). Man-caused mortality of coyotes marked in Grand Teton National Park. Recreational Impacts on Wildlands Conference 1979, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Udaya Sekhar, N. (2003). Local people’s attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism around Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental Management, 69(4), 339-347.
    Udaya Sekhar, N. (2003). Local people’s attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism around Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental Management, 69(4), 339–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2003.09.002
    Upneja, A., E. L. Shafer, et al. (2001). “Economic benefits of sport fishing and angler wildlife watching in Pennsylvania.” Journal of Travel Research 40(August): 68-78.
    US Dept of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service (1996). 1996 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Associated Recreation. USA: 1-115.
    US Dept of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service (1998). 1996 National and State Economic Impacts of Wildlife Watching. Virginia, USA, US Fish & Wildlife Service: 1-11.
    US Dept of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service (2001). 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Associated Recreation. USA.
    US Fish & Wildlife Service, (2001-1). “Birding in the United States: A Demographic and Economic Analysis“, An addendum to the 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation.
    USDA Forest Service (2002). The Wildlife Watchers Code of Ethics, USDA Forest Service,: 1-2.
    Usui, R., & Funck, C. (2018). Analysing food-derived interactions between tourists and sika deer (Cervus nippon) at Miyajima Island in Hiroshima, Japan: Implications for the physical health of deer in an anthropogenic environment. Journal of Ecotourism, 17(1), 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2017.1421641
    Vale, A. (1999). “Wildscapes Safaris: Tropical Platypus Research.” Retrieved 16/11/99, 1999, from www.wildscapes-safaris.com.au/Default.html.
    Valentine, P. S. (1984). Wildlife and tourism: some ideas on potential and conflict. 19th Annual Institute of Australian Geographers: Contemporary Issues in Australian Tourism, Sydney, Dept of Geography, University of Sydney.
    Valentine, P. S. (1992). Review: Nature-based tourism. Special Interest Tourism. B. Weiler and C. M. Hall: 105-127.
    Valentine, P. S., A. Birtles, et al. (in press). “Getting close to whales – passenger expectations and experiences, and the management of swim with dwarf minke whale interactions in the Great Barrier Reef.” Tourism Management.
    Valentine, P., Birtles, A., (2004). Wildlife Watching- Chapter 2. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 15-34.
    Validating a customer well-being index related to natural wildlife tourism. (2014). Tourism Management, 45, 171–180.
    van der Meer, E., Botman, S., & Eckhardt, S. (2019). I thought I saw a pussy cat: Portrayal of wild cats in friendly interactions with humans distorts perceptions and encourages interactions with wild cat species. PloS One, 14(5), e0215211.
    van der Merwe, Petrus, Saayman, M., & Botha, E. (2019). Does visitors to Kgalagadi Transfrontier park have different interpretation needs? Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 26, 43–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2019.03.003
    Van der Zande, A. N. and P. Vos (1984). “Impact of a semi-experimental increase in recreation intensity on the densities of birds in groves and hedges on a lake shore in the Netherlands.” Biological Conservation 30: 237-259.
    Van der Zande, A. N., H. C. Berkhuizen, et al. (1984). “Impact of outdoor recreation on the density of a number of breeding bird species in woods adjacent to urban residential areas.” Biological Conservation 30: 1-39.
    van Hoek, C., Ten Cate, C., 1998. Abnormal behaviour in caged birds kept as pets. J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci. 1, 51-64.
    van Linge, J. H. (1992). How to out-zoo the zoo. Tourism Management, 13(1), 115-117.
    Van Oosterzee, P. (2000). “Ecotourism and biodiversity conservation: two-way track.” Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 89-93.
    Van Tiggelen, J. (1994). How much can a koala bear? The handling of koalas in zoos and tourist parks. The Bulletin. Sydney: 43-45.
    van Zeeland, Y., Spruit, B., Rodenburg, T., Riedstra, B., van Hierden, Y., Buitenhuis, B., Korte, S., Lumeij, J. (2009). Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 121, 75-95.
    Van Zyl, H., T. Store, et al. (2000). The recreational value of viewing wildlife in Kenya. Environmental Valuation: A worldwide compendium of case studies. J. Rietbergen-McCracken and H. Abaza. London, Earthscan Publications Ltd: 35-52.
    Vandeleest, J., McCowan, B., Capitanio, J. (2011). Early rearing interacts with temperament and housing to influence the risk for motor stereotypy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 132, 81-89.
    Varcoe, A., F. Preston, et al. (1985). Phillip Island Penguin Reserve: survey of visitor use, expectations and satisfactions. Melbourne, Footscray Institute of Technology: 1-116 (parts only).
    Vasan, S. (2018). Consuming the Tiger: Experiencing Neoliberal Nature. Conservation and Society, 16(4), 481. https://doi.org/10.4103/cs.cs_16_143
    Vasile, M. (2018). The Vulnerable Bison: Practices and Meanings of Rewilding in the Romanian Carpathians. Conservation and Society, 16(3), 217. https://doi.org/10.4103/cs.cs_17_113
    Vaske, J. J., A. R. Graefe, et al. (?). “Recreation impacts: a synthesis of ecological and social research.” 96-107.
    Vaske, J. J., D. J. Decker, et al. (?). Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management: An Integrated Framework for Coexistence: 33-49.
    Vaske, J. J., D. Whittaker, et al. (2002). Chapter ?: Indicators and Standards: Developing Definitions of Quality. Wildlife Viewing: A management handbook. M. J. Manfredo. Arizona, USA, The University of Arizona Press.
    Vaudo, J. J., Wetherbee, B. M., Harvey, G. C. M., & Harvey, J. C. (2018). Characterisation and monitoring of one of the world’s most valuable ecotourism animals, the southern stingray at Stingray City, Grand Cayman. MARINE AND FRESHWATER RESEARCH, 69(1), 144–154. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17030
    Vaughan, D. (2000). “Tourism and biodiversity: A convergence of interests?” International Affairs 76(2): 283-297.
    Veasey, J. S. (2017). In pursuit of peak animal welfare; the need to prioritize the meaningful over the measurable Zoo biology 36 (6), 413-425
    Veselý, S., & Dohnal, M. (2015). ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WILDLIFE TOURISM: THE USE OF FORMALISED QUALITATIVE MODELS. Ekológia, 34(3), 260.
    Vespestad, M. K., & Lindberg, F. (2011). Understanding nature-based tourist experiences: An ontological analysis. CURRENT ISSUES IN TOURISM, 14(6), 563–580. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2010.513730
    VIC Department of Family and Community Services (2001). Volunteers and the environment- How can they make a difference: 49-54.
    VIC Dept Conservation and Environment Victoria (1992). Land for Wildlife News (Newsletter). 1: 12.
    VIC Dept Natural Resources & Environment (1995). Game Management Unit – 1995 Hunter Mail Survey.
    VIC Dept Natural Resources & Environment (1999). Land for Wildlife – Voluntary Wildlife Conservation.
    VIC Dept Natural Resources & Environment (2000). Annual Report 1999-2000 Natural Resources and Environment.
    VIC Dept Natural Resources & Environment (2000). Financial Report 1999-2000 Natural Resources and Environment.
    VIC Dept Natural Resources and Environment (2001). A Guide to Hunting Hog Deer in Victoria. East Melbourne: 23.
    VIC Dept Natural Resources and Environment (2001). Regulatory Impact Statement – Proposed Wildlife (Game) Regulations 2001. East Melbourne, Game Management Unit: 74.
    VIC Dept Natural Resources and Environment (2001). Victorian Hunting Guide 2001.
    VIC Government (1998). Wildlife (Whales) Regulations 1998, Victorian COnsolidated Regulations.
    VIC Parks Victoria (1998). Parks Victoria Annual Report 1997-98.
    VIC Tourism Victoria (2000). Nature Based Tourism – Directions and Opportunities for Victoria 2000-2003, Tourism Victoria: 33.
    Vickerman, S. (1988). Stimulating tourism and economic growth by featuring new wildlife recreation opportunities. Transactions of the 53rd North American Wildlife Natural Resources Conference, Washington, D.C., Wildlife Management Institute.
    Vickery, F. (?). Park Management and Nature-based Tourism in South Australia: A partnership, NPWSA.
    Vickery, F. (1992). Seal Bay and Tourism – managing within limits of acceptable change, National Parks and Wildlife Service – Kangaroo Island.
    Vickery, F. (1994). Seal Bay Management Strategy.
    Vickery, F. (1999). General Reserves Trust Marketing Strategy (South Australia): 1-12.
    Vickery, F. and P. D. Tulloch (1999). Parks-tourism 2000-2005: A strategic plan for Tourism Management and Development in South Australian Parks. Adelaide, SA National Parks and Wildlife South Australia.
    Vinke, C., Hansen, S., Mononen, J., Korhonen, H., Cooper, J., Mohaibes, M., Bakken, M., Spruijt, B. (2008). To swim or not to swim: An interpretation of farmed mink’s motivation for a water bath. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 111, 1-27.
    Vosin, J. F. (1996). “Evolution des peuplements d’ orthopeteres dans le caton D’Aime (Savoie).” Trav. Sci. Parc. Nation.: 229-254.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management (1998). New guidelines protect marine mammals, WA Department of Conservation and Land Management,: 1.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management (2002). Caring for the Dolphins. Monkey Mia, WA Department of Conservation and Land Management: 1.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management (2002). Commercial in water whale shark interaction tours and associated activity licence conditions-access from Tantabiddi (Conservation and Land Management Act 1984 (Section 101); Conservation and Land Management Regulations 2002 (Part 7)- Schedule 1). Tantabiddi, Department of Conservation and Land Management: 1-7.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management (2002). Sight seeing boat tour licences for Red Cliff Bay marine mammal interaction restriction area (Conservation and Land Management Act 1984 (Section 101); Conservation and Land Management Regulations 1992 (Part 5)- Schedule 1). Red Cliff Bay, Department of Conservation and Land Management: 1-3.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management (2004). Swimming with Whale Sharks-The Code of Conduct. ?, WA Department of Conservation and Land Management: 1.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, W. A. (?). Experiencing Whale Sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park. Exmouth, Goverment of West Australia.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, W. A. (?). Monkey Mia Magic. Shark Bay, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, W. A. (?). Sea Lions and Fur Seals. Kensington, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, W. A. (?). Watching Whales. Bentley, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, W. A. (1995). Wildlife Conservation (Close Season for Bottlenose Dolphins in Shark Bay Marine Park) Notice 1995. Shark Bay, Government Gazette, WA: 1191.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, W. A. (1998). Wildlife Conservation (Close Season for Marine Mammals) Notice 1998. ?, Government Gazette,WA: 5155-5157.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, W. A. (2004). Code of Best Environmental Practice. Exmouth, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia: 1.
    WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, W. A. (2004). Red Cliff Bay Code of Conduct: Vessels and Marine Mammals in the Red Cliff Bay Region, Shark Bay. Shark Bay, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia: 1-2.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management (?). Perup Forest Ecology Centre. WA.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management (?). Whale Sharks Ningaloo Marine Park – A Guide for Passengers of Commercial Tours. Exmouth, WA, CALM.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management (1984). Licence to Enter Upon and Use land in Order to Conduct Whale Shark Interaction Tours, Ningaloo Marine Park, CALM: 1-4.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management (1989). Shark Bay Discover Monkey Mia and Other Natural Wonders. Como, CALM.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management (1993). Monkey Mia Reserve draft management plan. Perth, Department of Conservation and Land Management, WA: 31-36.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management (1998). Perup Forest, Lake Muir Nature Reserve, Unicup Nature Reserve – Draft Management Plan 1998. Perth: 59.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management (2001). Landscope Expeditions Program. Crawley, WA, CALM, University of Western Australia: 27.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management (2001). Whale Watching, WA Dept Conservation and Land Management,: 1-5.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management. (1998, 15 September 1998). “New guidelines to protect marine mammals.” Retrieved 11 April, 2001.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management. (1998, 31 March 1998). “New strategy for whale shark watching.” Retrieved 11 April, 2001.
    WA Dept Conservation and Land Management. (2000). “Four-wheel Driving.” Retrieved 21 November, 2000.
    WA Nature Based Tourism Advisory Committee and WA Tourism Commission (1994). Towards a nature based tourism strategy for Western Australia: Discussion Paper. Perth, WA Tourism Commission.
    WA Tourism Commision (1997). “Top ten visitor activities in WA in 1996.” Touristics 13(1): 12-13.
    WA Tourism Commision and CALM (1997). Memorandum of Understanding Between CALM and WATC: 1-11.
    WA Various (Various). Western Australian State Tourism and Parks Plans. WA.
    Waayers, D. (2002). Lecture 11: Wildlife Tourism: Marine Turtle Tourism. Science, Murdoch University.
    Waayers, D., Lee, D., & Newsome, D. (2010). A Holistic Approach to Planning for Wildlife Tourism: A Case Study of Marine Turtle Tourism and Conservation in the Ningaloo Region, Western Australia. Murdoch University, Faculty of Sustainability, Environmental and Life Sciences & National Library of Australia.
    Waayers, D., Newsome, D. and Lee, D. (2006) Observations of non-compliance behaviour by tourists to a voluntary code of conduct: A pilot study of turtle tourism in the Exmouth region, Western Australia. Journal of Ecotourism 5 (3): 211-222.
    Wallace, G. N. (1993). Visitor management: lessons from Galapagos National Park. Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers – Volume 1. K. Lindberg and D. E. Hawkins. Vermont, The Ecotourism Society. 1: 55-81.
    Wallace, G. N. (1999). “Toward a Principled Evaluation of Ecotourism Ventures.” Retrieved 4 August, 1999.
    Wallberg, L. (1999). No tree… no me: Australian’s go out on a limb to save the koala. Wildlife Conservation. September/October: 23-29.
    Wang, C. and P. S. Miko (1997). “Environmental impacts of tourism on U.S. National Parks.” Journal of Travel Research 35(4): 31-36.
    Ward, P. I., N. Mosberger, et al. (1998). “The relationship between popularity and body size in zoo animals.” Conservation Biology 12(6): 1408-1415.
    Wardle, C., Buckley, R., Shakeela, A., & Castley, J. G. (2018). Ecotourism’s contributions to conservation: Analysing patterns in published studies. Journal of Ecotourism, 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2018.1424173
    Waroff, A., Fanucchi, L., Robbins, C., & Nelson, O., (2017). Tool use, problem-solving, and the display of stereotypic behaviors in the brown bear (Ursus arctos). J. Vet. Behav. 17, 62-68.
    Warwick, C., Arena, P., Lindley, S., Jessop, M., Steedman, C. (2013). Assessing reptile welfare using behavioural criteria. In Practice 35, 123-131.
    Watchable Wildlife Incorporated (?). A Guide to Ultimate Wildlife Watching. Colorado, Colorado Division of Wildlife: 2 A4.
    Watchable Wildlife Incorporated (2004). Marine Wildlife Viewing Guidelines, Watchable Wildlife Incorporated,: 1-2.
    Watchable Wildlife Incorporated. (2001). “Helping Communities and Wildlife Prosper: Wildlife Viewing.” 2001.
    Waters, A., Nicol, C., French, N. (2002). Factors influencing the development of stereotypic and redirected behaviours in young horses: findings of a four year prospective epidemiological study. Equine Vet. J. 34, 572-579.
    Watson, A. (1979). “Bird and mammal numbers in relation to human impact at ski lifts on Scottish hills.” Journal of Applied Ecology 16: 753-764.
    Watt, M. (1994). Licensing of Commercial Tour Operators on Public Lands in New South Wales. Masters of Natural Resources. Coffs Harbour, University of New England: 75.
    Watters, J. (2014). Searching for behavioral indicators of welfare in zoos: uncovering anticipatory behavior. Zoo Biol. 33, 251-256.
    WBM Oceanics Australia and Gordon Claridge (1997). Guidelines for managing visitation to seabird breeding islands. Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authorithy and Environment Australia-Biodiversity Group: 1-77.
    Wearing, S. and J. Neil (1999). Chapter 4: Ecotourism and protected areas: visitor management for sustainability. Ecotourism: Impacts, Potentials and Possibilities. S. Wearing and J. Neil. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann: 40-56.
    Wearing, S. and J. Neil (1999). Chapter 5: The role of interpretation in achieving a sustainable future. Ecotourism: Impacts, Potentials and Possibilities. S. Wearing and J. Neil. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann: 57-71.
    Weaver, D, Lawton, L (2007) Twenty years on: The state of contemporary ecotourism research, Tourism Management, Volume 28, Issue 5, p1168-1179.
    Weaver, D. (1998). Chapter 8: Ecotourism in the Caribbean and South Pacific. Ecotourism in the Less Developed World. D. Weaver. New York, CAB International: 118, 201-202 (sections only).
    Weaver, D. B. (2012). Psychographic insights from a South Carolina protected area. Tourism Management, 33(2), 371–379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.04.006
    Weaver, D., B. Faulkner, et al. (1999). Nature-based Tourism in Australia and Beyond: a Preliminary Investigation. Gold Coast, CRC for Sustainable Tourism: 30pp.
    Weaver, D., C. Glenn, et al. (1996). “Private Ecotourism Operations in Manitoba, Canada.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(3): 135-143.
    Webb, J., Pringle, R., Shine, R. (2004). How do nocturnal snakes select diurnal retreat sites? Copeia 2004, 919-925.
    Webber, S., Carter, M., Smith, W. and Vetere, F. (2017) Interactive technology and human–animal encounters at the zoo. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 98: 150–168
    Weber, B. (1999). Way of the Wolf. Wildlife Conservation. November/December.
    Webster, J. (1994) Assessment of animal welfare: The five freedoms. In Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden. Blackwell Science: Oxford, UK,; pp. 10–14.
    Webster, L. S., D. T. Neil, et al. (1998). Dolphin-initiated inter- and intra-specific contact and aggression during provisioning at Tangalooma. Brisbane, University of Queensland: Extended Abstract from GN3 19 Special Topic Report only.
    Wechsler, B. (1995). Coping and coping strategies: a behavioural view. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 43, 123-134.
    Weeks, B. K. (1996). Quality Assurance/ Quality Improvement in Environmental Training for Tour Operators and Guides (DO NOT QUOTE). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science. Gold Coast, Griffith University.
    Wehner, B. (?). Management of Koala populations and implications for tour operators (Student Report). Gold Coast, Griffith University: 1-7.
    Weiler, B, Broad, S (2004). Achieving conservation outcomes through environmental interpretation: a case study of Zoos Victoria. Working paper 4/04, Dept of Management Working paper series, Business and Economics Dept, Monash University.
    Weiler, B. (1999). Improving Interpretive Services in Guided Tours: Lessons from Field-Based Research on Australian Ecotour Guides. 1999 International Symposium of Society and Resource Management – Track: Interpretation and Communication, Brisbane, QLD.
    Weiler, B., & Smith, L. (2009). Does more interpretation lead to greater outcomes? An assessment of the impacts of multiple layers of interpretation in a zoo context. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 17(1), 91–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802359319
    Weller, S., Bennett, C., 2001. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 71, 67-79.
    Wells, M. (1994). Parks Tourism in Nepal: Reconciling the Social and Economic Opportunities with the Ecological and Cultural Threats. Proteced Area Economics and Policy. M. Munasinghe and J. A. McNeely. Washington, D.C., World Conservation Union (IUCN): 319, 326-327.
    Wells, M. P. (1996). “The social role of protected areas in the new South Africa.” Environmental Conservation 23(4): 322-331.
    Western, D. (1982). Amboseli National Park: Human values and the conservation of a savanna ecosystem. National Parks, Conservation, and Development: The Role of Protected Areas in Sustaining Society, Bali, Indonesia, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
    Westmoreland, D. and L. B. Best (1985). “The effect of disturbance on Mourning Dove nesting success.” The Auk 102: 774-780.
    Weston, M. A., Guay, P.-J., McLeod, E. M., & Miller, K. K. (2015a). Do Birdwatchers Care about Bird Disturbance? Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals, 28(2), 305–317. https://doi.org/10.2752/089279315X14219211661930
    Weston, M. A., Guay, P.-J., McLeod, E. M., & Miller, K. K. (2015b). Do birdwatchers care about bird disturbance? Anthrozoos, 28(2), 305–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927936.2015.11435404
    Whale Watch Operators Association- North West (2001). Best Practices Guidelines. Southern Vancouver Island, Whale Watch Operators Association-North West: 1-10.
    Wheatley, B. P. and D. K. H. Putra (1994). “The effects of tourism on conservation at the monkey forest in Ubud, Bali.” Revue d’Ecologie la Terre et la Vie 49(3): 245-257.
    Whelan, H. (1988). “Nature Tourism.” Environmental Conservation 15: 182.
    Whelan, T. (1991). Nature Tourism: Managing for the Environment. Washington, D.C., Island Press.
    Whinam, J., E. J. Cannell, et al. (1994). “Studies on the potential impacts of recreational horseriding on some alpine environments of the Central Plateau, Tasmania.” Journal of Environmental Management 40: 103-111.
    Whitham, J. C. and Wielebnowski, N. (2013) New directions for zoo animal welfare science. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147 (2013) 247–260
    Whitmore, M. (?). A comparative analysis of tourists perceptions of nature. Hobart, School of Sociology and Social Work, University of Tasmania?
    Whittaker, D., J. J. Vaske, et al. (2002). Chapter ?: Choosing Actions: Problem Definition, Identifying Strategies, and Evaluation Criteria. Wildlife Viewing: A management handbook. M. J. Manfredo. Arizona, USA, The University of Arizona Press.
    Whittle, P. M., Stewart, E. J., & Fisher, D. (2015). Re-creation tourism: De-extinction and its implications for nature-based recreation. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(10), 908–912. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2015.1031727
    Wielebnowski, N., Fletchall, N., Carlstead, K., Busso, J., Brown, J. (2002). Noninvasive assessment of adrenal activity associated with husbandry and behavioral factors in the North American clouded leopard population. Zoo Biol. 21, 77-98.
    Wijeratne, A. J., Van Dijk, P. A., Kirk-Brown, A., & Frost, L. (2014). “Rules of engagement: The role of emotional display rules in delivering conservation interpretation in a zoo- based tourism context.” Tourism Management 42, 149-156.
    Wikler, M., Pearson, L. K., Campbell, A. J., & Tibary, A. (2014). Non-surgical methods of contraception and sterilization in select domestic and wildlife species. Clinical Theriogenology, 6, 93–104.
    Wildlife Tourism Gearing up in India. (2018). Business World.
    Wildlife tourism. (2002). CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    Wildlife tourism. (2006). Choice Reviews Online, 43(06), 43-3395-43–3395. https://doi.org/10.5860/CHOICE.43-3395
    Wildlife tourism. (2012). Alive.
    Wildlife, S. N. P. a. (?). Penneshaw Penguin Management Plan. Kangaroo Island.
    WildTrails is reshaping the wildlife tourism industry by using modern technology. (2019). TravelBiz Monitor.
    Wilkes, L., Owen, S., Readman, G., Sloman, K., Wilson, R. (2012). Does structural enrichment for toxicology studies improve zebrafish welfare? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 139, 143-150.
    Wilkie, D. S. and J. F. Carpenter (1999). “Can nature tourism help finance protected areas in the Congo Basin?” Oryx 33(4): 332-338.
    Wilkinson, A., Huber, L. (2012). Cold-blooded cognition: reptilian cognitive abilities. In: Vonk, J., Shackleford, T., (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of comparative evolutionary psychology. Oxford University Press Inc., New York, USA., pp. 129-143.
    Wilkinson, A., Kuenstner, K., Mueller, J., Huber, L. (2010). Social learning in a non-social reptile (Geochelone carbonaria). Biol. Lett. 6, 614-616.
    Wilkinson, A., Mandl, I., Bugnyar, T., Huber, L. (2010). Gaze following in the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria). Anim. Cogn. 13, 765-769.
    Williams, I., Hoppitt, W., Grant, R. (2017). The effect of auditory enrichment, rearing method and social environment on the behavior of zoo-housed psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes); implications for welfare. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 186, 85-92.
    Williams, R. and W. Brennan (1999). Evaluating Face-to-Face Interpretation: exploring Best Practice in the evaluation of face-to-face interpretation in a program such as NSW National Parks Discovery – walks, talks and tours. Interpretation Australia Association National Conference: The Human Factor in Interpretation, Hobart, Interpretation Australia Association.
    Willis, P. (2008). Plenary session 3: Wildlife tourism. Australian Zoologist, 34, 280–284.
    Willmann de Donlea, E. (1996). Whale and Dolphin Watching in Australia. Manly, Sirius Encounters Australian Eco-Ventures: 1.
    Wilms, T., Wagner, P., Shobrak, M., Rödder, D., Böhme, W., 2011. Living on the edge? On the thermobiology and activity pattern of the large herbivorous desert lizard, Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis (Blanford, 1875) at Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area, Saudi Arabia. J. Arid Environ. 75, 636-647.
    Wilson, B. (1996). Supplementary Review of Dolphin Management at Monkey Mia – January, 1996. Kallaroo, Western Australia, Murex Consultants Pty Ltd.
    Wilson, B. A. and G. R. Friend (1999). “Responses of Australian mammals to disturbance: A review.” Australian Mammalogy.
    Wilson, C. and C. Tisdell (2001). “Sea turtles as a non-consumptive tourism resource especially in Australia.” Tourism Management 22: 279-288.
    Wilson, C., Tisdell, C., (2003). “Conservation and Economic Benefits of Wildlife-Based Marine Tourism: Sea Turtles and Whales as Case Studies.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8(1): 49-58. [
    Wilson, M., Bloomsmith, M., Maple, T. (2004). Stereotypic swaying and serum cortisol concentrations in three captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). ‎Anim. Welf. 13, 39-43.
    Wilson, R. (1999). Possums in the Spotlight. Nature Australia. Autumn 1999: 34-41.
    Wingfield, J. C., K. Hunt, et al. (1997). Chapter 5: Environmental stress, field endocrinology and conservation biology. Behavioural approaches to conservation in the wild. J. R. Clemmons and R. Buchholz. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press: contents and 106.
    Winkler, R. (2011a). Why do ICDPs fail? Resource and Energy Economics, 33(1), 55–78.
    Winkler, R. (2011b). Why do ICDPs fail?: The relationship between agriculture, hunting and ecotourism in wildlife conservation. Resource and Energy Economics, 33(1), 55–78.
    Wirth, H. J. (2001). “Animal Welfare in Australia.” 2001.
    Wolf, I. and Croft, D. (2010). “Minimizing disturbance to wildlife by tourists approaching on foot or in a car: A study of kangaroos in the Australian rangelands.” Applied Animal Behaviour Science 126 (1-2): 75-84.
    Wolf, I. D., & Croft, D. B. (2012). Observation techniques that minimize impacts on wildlife and maximize visitor satisfaction in night-time tours. Tourism Management Perspectives, 4, 164–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2012.08.002
    Wolfe, Cary. (2012). Before the law: Humans and other animals in a biopolitical frame. University of Chicago Press.
    Wolfensohn, S., Shotton, J., Bowley, H., Davies, S., Thompson, S. and Justice, W.S.N. (2018) Assessment of Welfare in Zoo Animals: Towards Optimum Quality of Life. Animals, 8, 110; doi:10.3390/ani8070110
    Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S., & Rabinowitz, A. (2005). People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press.
    Woods-Ballard, A. J., E. C. M. Parsons, et al. (2003). “The sustainability of whale-watching in Scotland.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 11(1): 40-55.
    Woods, B. (1998). “Animals on display: principles for interpreting captive wildlife.” Journal of Tourism Studies 9(1): 28-39.
    Woods, B. (1998). Animals on display: Principles for interpreting captive wildlife. Journal of Tourism Studies, 9(1), 28.
    Woods, B. (2000). “Beauty and the beast: Preferences for animals in Australia.” Journal of Tourism Studies 11(2): 25-35.
    Woods, B. and G. Moscardo (1996). Adding value to tourist operations through interpretation: is interpretation good for tourism, or tourism good for interpretation? Fifth Annual Interpretation Australia Association Conference, Bendigo.
    Woolf, A. and J. L. Rosebury (1998). “Deer management : our profession’s symbol of success or failure?” Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(3): 515-521.
    Worboys, G., M. Lockwood, et al. Protected Area Management, Principles and Practice, Oxford University Press.
    World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. United for Conservation. (2005). Building a future for wildlife: the world zoo and aquarium conservation strategy. WAZA Executive Office.
    World Conservation Union (WCU) (1991). Progress Report on Revision of the WTO-UNEP Guidelines on the development of terrestrial and marine national parks for travel and tourism. Madrid, World Tourism Organisation: 1-12.
    World Resources Institute (The) (1998). World Resources 1998-99. New York, Oxford University Press.
    World Resources Institute (The) (2000). World Resources 2000-2001. Oxford, Elsevier Science.
    World Tourism Organisation and United Nations Environment Programme (1992). Guidelines: Development of National Parks and Protected Areas for Tourism. Madrid, WTO: 51.
    World Wide Fund (?). Code of Conduct for Tour Operators in the Arctic, WWF International Arctic Programme: 1-5.
    World Wide Fund for Nature (2003). Code of Conduct for Arctic Tourists. Oslo, World Wide Fund: 1-3.
    World Wildlife Fund (1995). “Ecotourism: Conservation Tool or Threat?” WWF Issues 2(3): 3-11.
    Wright, R. G. (1998). “A review of the relationships between visitors and ungulates in national parks.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(3): 471-476.
    Wu, J., Huang, D., Liu, J., & Law, R. (2013). “Which factors help visitors convert their short-term pro-environmental intentions to long-term behaviours?” International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 13(2), 33-56.
    Xia, W., Ren, B., Li, Y., & Hu, J. (2017). Behavioural Responses of Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) to Tourists in a Provisioned Monkey Group in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. Folia Primatologica, 87(6), 349–360. https://doi.org/10.1159/000454922
    Xu Honggang. (2004). Development and problems of non-consumptive wildlife tourism in China. Geography and Geo-Information Science, 20(2), 83-90. [徐红罡. 中国非消费型野生 动物旅游若干问题研究[J] . 地理与地理信息科学,
    Yalden, D. W. (1992). “The influence of recreation disturbance on common sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos breeding by an upland reservoir in England.” Biological Conservation 61: 41-49.
    Yalden, P. E. and D. W. Yalden (1990). “Recreational disturbance of breeding golden plovers Pluvialis apricarius.” Biological Conservation 51: 243-262.
    Yay, M. (?). V Case Study Analysis: 65-111.
    Yeates, J., Main, D. (2008). Assessment of positive welfare: a review. Vet. J. 175, 293-300.
    Yeh ChienMu, Hu HanNing, Tsai ShuHsien et al (2011). “A conceptual model of knowledge sharing and market orientation in the tourism sector.” American Journal of Applied Sciences 8 (4):343-347.
    Yellowstone National Park (2003). Wildlife Viewing Guidelines. Yellowstone, Yellowstone National Park: 1-2.
    Yin, D., Gao, Q., & Zhu, H. (2017). The excise of biopower in wildlife tourism: A case study of Crocodile Park, Guangzhou. Dili Xuebao/Acta Geographica Sinica, 72(10), 1872–1885. https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb201710011
    YITBAREK, T. W., TADIE, D., TIMER, G., & FISCHER, A. (2013). Evaluating governance processes in the sharing of revenues from wildlife tourism and hunting in Ethiopia. Environmental Conservation, 40(3), 253–265.
    Yonzon, P. B. and M. L. Hunter, Jr. (1991). “Cheese, tourists, and red pandas in the Nepal Himalayas.” Conservation Biology 5(2): 196-202.
    Young, M. D., N. Gunningham, et al. (1996). “Reimbursing the Future: An evaluation of motivational, voluntary price-based, property-right, and regulatory incentives for the conservation of biodiversity.” Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 9 Biodiversity Unit.
    Young, R. (2003). Environmental enrichment for captive animals: UFAW animal welfare series. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
    Yu, D.W.,Ji,Y., Emerson, B. C., Ye, C., Yang, C. and Ding, Z. (2012). Biodiversity Soup. Metabarcoding of arthropods for rapid biodiversity assessment and biomonitoring. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3: 613-623 [monitoring]
    Yu, X., Zhou, Y., Xu, W., & Xie, Z. (2015). Principle and technical parameters for designing wildlife crossings on tourism roads in protected areas. Biodiversity Science, 23(6), 824–829. https://doi.org/10.17520/biods.2015022
    Yudina, O., & Grimwood, B. S. R. (2016). Situating the wildlife spectacle: Ecofeminism, representation, and polar bear tourism. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 24(5), 715–734. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2015.1083996
    Yusuf, M. (2017). Kenya Drought Hurting Wildlife, Tourism. Voice of America News / FIND.
    Zanamwe, C., Gandiwa, E., Muboko, N., & Kupika, O. L. (2018). Ecotourism and wildlife conservation-related enterprise development by local communities within Southern Africa: Perspectives from the greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation, South-Eastern Lowveld, Zimbabwe. Cogent Environmental Science, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311843.2018.1531463
    Zawacki, W. T., A. Marsinko, et al. (2000). “A travel cost analysis of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation in the United States.” Forest Science 46(4): 496-506.
    Zelezny, L. C. (1999). “Educational interventions that improve environmental behaviours: A meta-analysis.” The Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 5-14.
    Zengerle, P. (1999). “1998 Was Florida Manatees’ Third Worst Year Ever.” Retrieved 10/01/99, 1999.
    Zeppel, H., Muloin, S. (2008). Aboriginal Interpretation in Australian Wildlife Tourism. Journal of Ecotourism 7 (2-3) 116 – 136
    Zeppel, H., Muloin, S., Higginbottom, K., (2004). Kangaroo or gangurru? Indigenious wildlife interpretation in Australia. Interpreting the land dowunder: Australian Heritage Interpretation and Tour Guiding. R. S. Black, Weiler, B.,. Golden, Colorado, Fulcrum Publishing: 165-185.
    Zeppel, Heather. (2008). Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences. Journal of Environmental Education, 39(3), 3-19
    Ziegler, J. A., Dearden, P., & Rollins, R. (2016). Participant crowding and physical contact rates of whale shark tours on Isla Holbox, Mexico. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 24(4), 616–636. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2015.1071379
    Ziegler, J., Dearden, P., & Rollins, R. (2012). But are tourists satisfied? Importance-performance analysis of the whale shark tourism industry on Isla Holbox, Mexico. Tourism Management, 33(3), 692–701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.08.004
    Ziegler, Jackie A., Silberg, J. N., Araujo, G., & Labaja, J. (2018). A guilty pleasure: Tourist perspectives on the ethics of feeding whale sharks in Oslob, Philippines. Tourism Management, 68, 264–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.04.001
    Ziegler, Jackie A., Silberg, J. N., Araujo, G., & Labaja, J. (2019). Applying the precautionary principle when feeding an endangered species for marine tourism. Tourism Management, 72, 155–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.11.021
    Zimmerhackel, J. S., Rogers, A. A., Meekan, M. G., & Ali, K. (2018). How shark conservation in the Maldives affects demand for dive tourism. Tourism Management, 69, 263–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.009