Wildlife Tourism Research Literature

A bibliography of wildlife tourism related references from Australia and internationally.

If you know of any we’ve missed please let us know.

This is a long list! We are planning a searchable database.  Meantime, you can do a simple ‘find’ within the page to search the following keywords

  • attitudes (includes values, human behavioural change, visitor satisfaction)
  • birds(includes birding, birdwatching)
  • conservation
  • economics (economics of wildlife tourism or ecotourisn
  • hunting (includes fishing)
  • interpretation (includes nature education, environmental education, guiding, signage etc.)
  • mammals
  • management (conservation management, management of visitors, guidelines)
  • marine (whales, turtles, coral reef etc.)
  • monitoring
  • negative impacts
  • positive impacts
  • captive wildlife
  • guidelines (reports, recommendations)

Publications (articles, chapter and books relevant to wildlife tourism)

Ahuja, V. (2020). Promotion of Tourism Using Social Media. In Managing Social Media Practices in the Digital Economy (pp. 25–44). IGI Global.
American Birding Association (2003). American Birding Association’s Principles of Birding Ethics, American Birding Association: 1-3. [birdwatching, guidelines]
American Society of Travel Agents (2001). Ten Commandments on Ecotourism, American Society of Travel Agents. [guidelines]
Ames, P. L. and G. S. Mersereau (1964). “Some factors in the decline of the osprey in Connecticut.” The Auk 81: 173-185. [birds, negative impacts]
Analysis of wildlife tourism experiences with endangered species. (2014). Tourism Management, 40, 300–310.
Andersen, S. M., Teilmann, J., Dietz, R., & Schmidt, N. M. (2012). Behavioural responses of harbour seals to human‐induced disturbances. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 22(1), 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.1244
Anderson, D. W. and J. O. Keith (1980). “The human influence on seabird nesting success: conservation implications.” Biological Conservation 18: 65-80. [birds, negative impacts]
Anderson, K. (1995). “Culture and Nature at the Adelaide zoo: at the frontiers of human geography”. Transactions of the British Geographers 20: 275–294. [management, zoo]
Anderson, K. (1998) “Animals, science, and spectacle in the city.” In J. R. Wolch, & J. Emel (eds.), Animal geographies. place, politics and identity in the nature-culture borderlands. London: Verso. 25-50.
Anderson, R., J. D. C. Linnell, et al. (1996). “Short term behavioural and physiological response of moose Alces alces to military disturbance in Norway.” Biological Conservation 77: 169-176. [mammals, negative impacts]
Andersson, P., Croné, S., Stage, J., & Stage, J. (2005a). Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 21(1), 1.
Andersson, P., Croné, S., Stage, J., & Stage, J. (2005b). Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism: An example from Uganda’s gorilla tourism. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 21(1), 1–18.
Angeloni L., Crooks K.R., and Blumstein D.T. (2010) Conservation and Behavior: Introduction. In: Breed M.D. and Moore J., (eds.) Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, volume 1, pp. 377-381. Oxford: Academic Press. [conservation]
Anon (?). Code of Behaviour – For guides and tour leaders who bring people into the Penneshaw Penguin Colony: 1-2. [birds, management]
Anon (?). Evaluating Destination Image: Reducing the Scale to Managed Visitor Attractions: 40. [ attitudes, management]
Anon (1989). Wildlife Watching: Paradise for nature lovers. Australia: The Australian Tourism Commission Newsletter, Australian Tourism Commission. Spring: 8-9.
Anon (1990). Approaches to local participation: The African Experience. Ecotourism and Resource Conservation: A collection of papers. J. Kusler. [management, local community]
Anon (1992). Bear Facts – The Essentials for Travelling in Bear Country. [mammals, guidelines]
Anon (1997). Antarctica a travel hot spot. Weekend Australian: 7.[Antarctica, travel advice]
Anon (2000). Bare’s fine as Vic joins the Bondi babes. The Sydney Morning Herald: 24.
Anon (2003). NGO’s as Conservation Agents. Marine Ecotourism Issues and Experiences. B. Garrod, Wilson, J.C. Church Point, Channel View Publications: 108-121. [marine, conservation]
Anon (2004). Artificial glow-worm cave gets green light to open. The Shire News: 1. [management]
Anon. (2015). The Animal Welfare Act. Ministry of Primary Industries. New Zealand Government. Wellington, New: Zealand.
ANZECC (1998). ANZECC Humpback Whale Research and Conservation Seminar, Brisbane 1998, QLD Dept of Environment and Heritage. [marine, conservation]
Ap, J. and J. Crompton (1998). “Developing and Testing a Tourism Impact Scale.” Travel Research 37(2): 120-130. [attitudes, management]
Appleby, M., Sandøe, P. (2002). Philosophical debate on the nature of well-being: implications for animal welfare. ‎Anim. Welf. 11: 283-294. [attitudes]
Apps, K., Dimmock, K., Lloyd, D., & Huveneers, C. (2016). In the Water with White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias): Participants’ Beliefs toward Cage-diving in Australia. ANTHROZOOS, 29(2), 231–245. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927936.2016.1152714
Araujo, G., Ismail, A. R., McCann, C., McCann, D., Legaspi, C. G., Snow, S., Labaja, J., Manjaji-Matsumoto, M., & Ponzo, A. (n.d.). Getting the most out of citizen science for endangered species such as Whale Shark. Journal of Fish Biology.
Arbieu, U., Grünewald, C., Martín-López, B., & Schleuning, M. (2018). Large mammal diversity matters for wildlife tourism in Southern African Protected Areas: Insights for management. Ecosystem Services, 31, 481–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.006
Arbieu, U., Grünewald, C., Schleuning, M., & Böhning-Gaese, K. (2017). The importance of vegetation density for tourists’ wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction in African savannah ecosystems. PloS One, 12(9), e0185793. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185793
Arbuckle, K. (2013). Folklore husbandry and a philosophical model for the design of captive management regimes. Herpetol. Rev. 44: 448-452. [attitudes,management]
Aretino, B., Holland, P., Peterson, D., Schuele, M. (2001). Creating Markets for Biodiversity: A case study of Earth Sanctuaries Ltd. Productivity Commission Staff Research Paper. Canberra, ACT. [economics, management, Australian wildlife]
Arita, H. T. (1996). “The conservation of cave-roosting bats in Yucatan, Mexico.” Biological Conservation 76(2): 177-185. [mammals, conservation]
Ariya, G., Sitati, N., & Wishitemi, B. (2017). Tourists’ perceived value of wildlife tourism product at Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 8(2), 147–156. https://doi.org/10.1515/ejthr-2017-0014
Arluke, A. and C. R. Sanders (1996). Regarding Animals. Philadelphia, Temple University Press.
Armsden, A. (1997). “Captive Audiences.” Geographical 69(11): 6-7.
Aryal, A., Morley, C. G., Cowan, P., & Ji, W. (2016). Conservation trophy hunting: Implications of contrasting approaches in native and introduced-range countries. Biodiversity, 17(4), 179–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2016.1263974
Ashley, C. (2000). The impacts of tourism on rural livelihoods: Namibia’s experience. Overseas Development Institute London.
Ashley, C., & Roe, D. (1998). Enhancing community involvement in wildlife tourism: issues and challenges (Vol. 11). International Institute for Environment and Development, London. [positive impact]
Ashley, P. (2007). Fish welfare: current issues in aquaculture. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 104: 199-235. [management]
Aslin, H. J. and D. H. Bennett (1999). Wildlife and world views: Australian attitudes to wildlife. International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Brisbane. [tourist attitudes]
Au, W. W. L. and M. Green (2000). “Acoustic interaction of humpback whales and whale-watching boats.” Marine Environmental Research 49: 469-481. [marine, mammals, negative impacts]
Augustine, S., Dearden, P., & Rollins, R. (2016). Are changing diver characteristics important for coral reef conservation? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 26(4), 660–673. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2574
Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA) (?). ARAZPA – Code of Practice, Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA): 1-12. [guidelines, captive wildlife]
Australian Alps National Parks (?). River Users Code, Australian Alps National Parks. [guidelines]
Australian Alps National Parks (1993). Car-based Camping Code, Australian Alps National Parks. [guidelines]
Australian Alps National Parks (1993). Snow Camping Code, Australian Alps National Parks. [guidelines]
Australian Alps National Parks (1994). Horse Riding Code, Australian Alps National Parks.[guidelines]
Australian Alps National Parks (1997). Bushwalking Code, Australian Alps National Parks.[guidelines]
Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) (1997). Guide to environmental legislation in Australia and New Zealand. Canberra, Dept of Environment, Sports and Territories. [legislation]
Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) (2000). Australian National Guidelines for Cetacean Observation and Areas of Special Interest for Cetacean Observation. Environment Australia: 1-20. [guidelines, marine mammals]
Australian Wildlife Tourism Conference. (2006). Getting real about wildlife tourism : Conference program. Canning Bridge, W.A.: Promaco Conventions.
Aveling, C. and R. Aveling (1989). “Gorilla conservation in Zaire.” Oryx 23(2): 64-70. [mammals, conservation]
Avey, M., Rodriguez, A., Sturdy, C. (2011). Seasonal variation of vocal behaviour in a temperate songbird: Assessing the effects of laboratory housing on wild-caught, seasonally breeding birds. Behav. Process. 88: 177-183. [management, captive wildlife]
Avila-Foucat, Véronique Sophie, & Rodríguez-Robayo, K. J. (2018). Determinants of livelihood diversification: The case wildlife tourism in four coastal communities in Oaxaca, Mexico. Tourism Management, 69, 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.021
Avila-Foucat, Veronique Sophie, Gendron, D., Revollo-Fernandez, D., & Popoca, E. I. (2017). Determinants of the potential demand for whale watching in Loreto Bay National Park. Marine Policy, 81, 37–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.03.006
Avila-Foucat, Véronique Sophie. (2018). Determinants of livelihood diversification. Tourism Management, 69, 223–231.
AVMA, A. (n.d.). Guidelines for the Euthanasia of AnimalsAmerican veterinary Medical Association (2013th ed.). USA.
Ayhan, Ç. K., Taşlı, T. C., Özkök, F., & Tatlı, H. (2020). Land use suitability analysis of rural tourism activities: Yenice, Turkey. Tourism Management, 76, 103949.
Bach, L., & Burton, M. (2017). Proximity and animal welfare in the context of tourist interactions with habituated dolphins. JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, 25(2), 181–197. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2016.1195835
Baird, B. A., Kuhar, C. W., Lukas, K. E., Amendolagine, L. A., Fuller, G. A., Nemet, J., … & Schook, M. W. (2016). Program animal welfare: Using behavioral and physiological measures to assess the well-being of animals used for education programs in zoos. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 176, 150-162. [management, captive wildlife]
Baker, J. E. (1997). “Trophy hunting as a sustainable use of wildlife resources in southern and eastern Africa.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(4): 306-321. [hunting, management]
Ballantyne, R. and Packer, J. (2005). Promoting environmentally sustainable attitudes and behaviour through free-choice learning experiences: What’s the state of the game?, Environmental Education Research, 11 (3), 281-295. [attitudes, interpretation, conservation]
Ballantyne, R. and Packer, J. (in press). Using tourism free-choice learning experiences to promote environmentally sustainable behaviour: the role of post-visit ‘action resources’. Environmental Education Research. [tourist attitudes, interpretation]
Ballantyne, R., & Packer, J. (2011). Using tourism free-choice learning experiences to promote environmentally sustainable behaviour: The role of post-visit “action resources.” Environmental Education Research, 17(2), 201–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2010.530645
Ballantyne, R., J. Packer, et al. (1998). “Targeted Interpretation: Exploring relationships among visitors’ motivations, actitivies, attitudes, information needs and preferences.” Journal of Tourism Studies 9(2): 14-25. [tourist attitudes]
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. & Hughes, K. (2009). Tourists’ support for conservation messages and sustainable management practices in wildlife tourism experiences. Tourism Management, 30, 658-664. [tourist attitudes, conservation]
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. and Falk, J. (2011). “Visitors’ learning for environmental sustainability: Testing short and long term impacts of wildlife tourism experiences using structural equation modelling.” Tourism Management 32 (6): 1243-1252. [tourist attitudes]
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. and Sutherland, L. (2011). “Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences.” Tourism Management 32 (4): 770-779. [tourist attitudes, interpretation]
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Falk, J. (2011). Visitors’ learning for environmental sustainability: Testing short-and long-term impacts of wildlife tourism experiences using structural equation modelling. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1243-1252. [management, monitoring]
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Hughes, K. (2008). Environmental awareness, interests and motives of botanic gardens visitors: Implications for interpretive practice. Tourism Management, 29(3), 439–444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.05.006
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Hughes, K. (2009). Tourists’ support for conservation messages and sustainable management practices in wildlife tourism experiences. Tourism Management, 30(5), 658–664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2008.11.003
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Sutherland, L. A. (2011). Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences. Tourism management, 32(4), 770-779. [management, attitudes, interpretation]
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., Hughes, K., & Dierking, L. (2007). Conservation learning in wildlife tourism settings: Lessons from research in zoos and aquariums. Environmental Education Research, 13(3), 367-383. [conservation, interpretation, captive wildlife]
Ballen, C., Shine, R., & Olsson, M. (2014). Effects of early social isolation on the behaviour and performance of juvenile lizards, Chamaeleo calyptratus. Animal Behaviour, 88, 1-6. [management, captive wildlife]
Banerjee, A. (2012). Is wildlife tourism benefiting Indian protected areas? A survey. CURRENT ISSUES IN TOURISM, 15(3), 211–227. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2011.599367
Baral, A. (2013). Impacts of wildlife tourism on poaching of Greater One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Lincoln University.
Barany, M. E., A. L. Hammett, et al. (2001). “The Role of Private Wildlife Reserves in Nicaragua’s Emerging Ecotourism Industry.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9(2): 95-110. [conservation, economics]
Baratay, E., & Hardouin-Fugier, E. (2004). Zoo: A history of zoological gardens in the West. Reaktion books. [management, captive wildlife]
Barnes, F. W. (1994). Chapter 17: Sustainable Development in African Game Parks. Principles of Conservation Biology. G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll. Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates, Inc.: 504-511. [conservation, economics]
Barnes, J., J. Burgess, et al. (1992). Chapter 6: Wildlife Tourism. Economics for the Wilds: wildlands, diversity and development. T. M. Swanson and E. B. Barbier. London, Earthscan Publications: 136-150. [conservation, economics]
Barnett, A., Payne, N. L., Semmens, J. M., & Fitzpatrick, R. (2016). Ecotourism increases the field metabolic rate of whitetip reef sharks. Biological Conservation, 199, 132–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.05.009
Barrows, P. L. (2004). Professional, ethical and legal dilemmas of trap-neuter-release. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225, 1365–9.
Barter, M., Newsome, D. and Calver, M. (2008) Preliminary quantitative data on behavioural responses of Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) to human approach on Penguin Island, Western Australia, Journal of Ecotourism 7 (2&3): 192-212. [negative impacts]
Bashaw, M. J., Kelling, A. S., Bloomsmith, M. A., & Maple, T. L. (2007). Environmental Effects on the Behavior of Zoo-housed Lions and Tigers, with a Case Study of the Effects of a Visual Barrier on Pacing. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 10(2), 95-109. [mammals, management, captive wildlife]
Bashaw, M. J., Tarou, L. R., Maki, T. S., & Maple, T. L. (2001). A survey assessment of variables related to stereotypy in captive giraffe and okapi. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 73(3), 235-247. [management, mammals, captive wildlife]
Bateson, P., Nyman, S., Sheppard, D. (1989) National parks & tourism: proceedings of a seminar held in Sydney 6 May 1988, N.S.W. National Parks and Wildlife Service [with the] Royal Australian Institute of Parks and Recreation (NSW Region), Hurstville, N.S.W.
Batten, L. A. (1977). “Sailing on reservoirs and its effects on water birds.” Biological Conservation 11: 49-58. [negative impacts]
Batten, P. and D. Stancil (1976). Living Trophies. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company. [hunting, conservation]
Bauer, J. J. and K. M. Cosgriff (2001). Hunting, multi-cultural society and environmental change in Australia. Veterinary Conservation Biology Conference, Sydney. [hunting]
Bauer, J., Herr, A., (2004). Hunting and Fishing Tourism -Chapter 4. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 57-77. [hunting, management]
Baxter, E., & Plowman, A. B. (2001). The effect of increasing dietary fibre on feeding, rumination and oral stereotypies in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Animal Welfare, 10(3), 281-290. [management, mammals]
Bayless, D. S., J. C. Bergstrom, et al. (1994). “Assessing the demand for designated wildlife viewing sites.” Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing 2(3): 75-93. [tourist attitudes]
Bayma, T. (2012). Rational myth making and environment shaping: The transformation of the zoo. The Sociological Quarterly, 53(1), 116-141. [management, captive wildlife]
Beaumont, N. (1997). Perceived crowding as as evaluative standard for determining social carrying capacity in tourist recreation areas: The case of Green Island, North Queensland. Tourism planning and policy in Australia and New Zealand: Cases, issues and practice. C. M. Hall, J. Jenkins and G. Kearsley. Sydney, Irwin Publishers. [hunting]
Beausoleil, N. J. (2014). Balancing the need for conservation and the welfare of individual animals. In M. Appleby, P. Sandoe, & D. M. Weary (Eds.), Dilemmas in Animal Welfare (pp. 124–47). CABI Publishing UK.
Beaver, A. (2012). A dictionary of travel and tourism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beckman, E. A. (1987). “Interpretation in Australia – Current Status and Future Prospects.” Australian Parks and Recreation 23: 6-14. [interpretation]
Beckman, E. A. (1992). Environmental interpretation for education and management in Australian national parks and other protected areas, University of new England. [interpretation, management]
Beckman, E. A. (2001). ‘Be Dingo Smart’ – Managing Visitors to Manage Dingoes. IAA Conference. [interpretation, management]
Beeton, S. (2004). Business Issues in Wildlife Tourism – Chapter 10. Wildlife Tourism-impacts, management and planning. K. Higginbottom, Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd: 187-209. [economics, management]
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H., & Gales, N. (2006). Decline in Relative Abundance of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Long-Term Disturbance. Conservation Biology, 20(6), 1791–1798.
Bekoff, M., & Ram, D. (2014). Cruel to be kind? New: Scientist.
Belicia, T. X. Y., & Islam, M. S. (2018). Towards a Decommodified Wildlife Tourism: Why Market Environmentalism Is Not Enough for Conservation. Societies, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030059
Bell, D. V. and L. W. Austin (1985). “The game-fishing season and its effects on overwintering wildfowl.” Biological Conservation 33: 65-80. [hunting]
Benckendorff, P. and Lund-Durlacher, D. (eds) 2013. International cases in sustainable travel & tourism, Goodfellow Publishers, Oxford. [positive impacts]
Benson, D. E. (1987). Section B-7: Wildlife utilization on private land in South Africa with implications for the United States. Valuing Wildlife: Economic and Social Perspectives. D. D. Decker and G. R. Goff. London, Westview Press: 376-381. [economics]
Benson, D. E. (2001). “Wildlife and Recreation Management on Private Lands in the United States.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1): 359-371. [management]
Bentz, J. H. (2015). Optimal strategies for marine wildlife tourism in small islands. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Bentz, J., Dearden, P., & Calado, H. (2013). Strategies for marine wildlife tourism in small islands – the case of the Azores. JOURNAL OF COASTAL RESEARCH, 874–879. https://doi.org/10.2112/SI65-148.1
Bentz, Julia, Dearden, P., & Calado, H. (2013b). Strategies for marine wildlife tourism in small islands–the case of the Azores. Journal of Coastal Research, 65(sp1), 874–880.
Bentz, Julia, Lopes, F., Calado, H., & Dearden, P. (2016). Enhancing satisfaction and sustainable management: Whale watching in the Azores. Tourism Management, 54, 465–476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.11.016
Bentz, Julia, Rodrigues, A., Dearden, P., & Calado, H. (2015). Crowding in marine environments: Divers and whale watchers in the Azores. Ocean and Coastal Management, 109, 77–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.03.001
Bentz, Julia. (2016). Managing marine wildlife tourism activities. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 74–83.
Bergeron, R., Badnell-Waters, A., Lambton, S., Mason, G. (2008). Stereotypic oral behaviour in captive ungulates: foraging, diet and gastrointestinal function. In: Mason, G., Rushen, J., (Ed.), Stereotypic animal behaviour: fundamentals and applications to welfare. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 19-57. [captive wildlife]
Berris, M. (2001). Neo Notes No.2: Guiding Protocols for dealing with groups on Seal Bay Beach. Seal Bay Conservation Park, SA NPW. [guidelines, marine mammals]
Berrow, S. D. (2003). Chapter 4: An Assessment of the Framework, Legislation and Monitoring Required to Develop Genuinely Sustainable Whalewatching. Marine Ecotourism Issues and Experiences. B. Garrod, Wilson, J.C. Church Point, Channel View Publications: 66, 73-75. [marine mammals, management, legislation]
Bertella, G. (2011). Wildlife tourism and Natural Sciences Knowledge: Challenges and critical factors. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(1), 97–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2011.540794
Bertella, G. (2018). Sustainability in wildlife tourism: Challenging the assumptions and imagining alternatives. Tourism Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-11-2017-0166
Bertella, G., & Acquarone, M. (2018). Reply to “Swim encounters with Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) off Northern Norway: Interactive behaviours directed towards Human Divers and Snorkellers obtained from opportunistic underwater video recordings.” Journal of Ecotourism, 17(2), 184. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2017.1368272
Bertella, G., Fumagalli, M., & Williams-Grey, V. (2019). Wildlife tourism through the co-creation lens. Tourism Recreation Research, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2019.1606977
Bertrand, J.-M. (1997). Wildlife tourism in Africa.
Berwick, S. H. and V. B. Sahara (1995). The Development of International Principles and Practices of Wildlife Research and Management: Asian and American Approaches. Delhi, Oxford University Press: 295-323. [management,]
Berwick, S. H., & Saharia, V. B. (1995). Development of international principles and practices of wildlife research and management. Oxford University Press.
Bhuiyan, M., Siwar, C., Ismail, S.M. et al (2011). “The role of home stay for ecotourism development in East Coast Economic Region.” American Journal of Applied Sciences 8 (6): 540-54 [economics]
Big Volcano (2001). Code of Practice for Ecotourism Operators, Big Volcano,: 1-2. [guidelines]
Biggs D, Turpie J., Fabriclus C, Spenceley A. The value of avitourism for conservation and job creation – An analysis from South Africa. Conservat Soc [serial online] 2011 [cited 2013 Feb 24]; 9:80-90. Available from www.conservationandsociety.org/text.asp?2011/9/1/80/79198 [economics]
Bindra, P., & Karanth, K. K. (2013). Tourism turf wars: Debating the benefits and costs of wildlife tourism in India. ORYX, 47(1), 15–16. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313000161
Biolatti, C., Modesto, P., Dezzutto, D., Pera, F., Tarantola, M., Gennero, M., … & Acutis, P. (2016). Behavioural analysis of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) under different zoo managements. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci, 174, 173-180. [captive wildlife]
BirdLife International, (2013). Buceros bicornis, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ver 3.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org Accessed December 11th, 2015.
Birds Australia (1999). Guidelines on Recreational Bird Watching: Information Sheet No.9. Hawthorn, Victoria, Birds Australia: 1-4. [guidelines, birdwatching]
Birds Australia (2002). Bird Hides for Birders and Builders-Information Sheet No.8. Hawthorn East, Bird Australia: 1-2.
Birds Australia (2002). Sharing our Beaches with Birds. Hawthorn East, Birds Australia: 1-2.
Birenboim, A., Reinau, K. H., Shoval, N., & Harder, H. (2015). High-resolution measurement and analysis of visitor experiences in time and space: The case of Aalborg zoo in Denmark. The Professional Geographer, 67(4), 620-629. [captive wildlife, attitudes]
Birkett, L., Newton-Fisher, N. (2010). Recognising psychological abnormality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using human psychiatric principles. Animals, Research, and Alternatives: PCRM conference, The Physician’s Committee, Washington DC, USA. [captive wildlife]
Birkhead, T. (2012). Bird Sense. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.
Birtles, A. (2002). Information for dwarf minke whale interactions in the great barrier reef world heritage area- Code of Practice for dwarf minke whale-human interactions, CRC Reef Research Centre: 1-5.
Birtles, A., M. Cuthill, et al. (1996). Incorporating Research on Visitor Experiences into Ecologically Sustainable Management of Whale Shark Tourism. Ecotourism and Nature-Based Tourism: Taking the next steps. Ecotourism Association of Australia. H. Richins, J. Richardson and A. Crabtree. Brisbane, Ecotourism Association of Australia: 195-202.
Birtles, A., P. Valentine, et al. (2001). Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife: Opportunities and responsibilities. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia. Gold Coast, Queensland, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Birtles, A., Valentine, P., & Curnock, M. (2001a). Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Birtles, A., Valentine, P., & Curnock, M. (2001b). Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife: Opportunities and responsibilities. CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Bishop, A., Pomeroy, P., & Twiss, S. D. (2015). Breeding male grey seals exhibit similar activity budgets across varying exposures to human activity. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 527, 247–259. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps11254
Bitgood, S., A. Benefield, et al. (1986). Understanding Your Visitors: Ten Factors that Influence Their Behaviour. Jacksonville, Centre for Social Design – Jacksonville State University: 17.
Bitgood, S., A. Benefield, et al. (1988). “Exhibit Design and Visitor Behaviour: Empirical Relationships.” Environment and Behaviour 20(4): 474-491.
Black, R & Crabtree, A (ed) 2007 Quality Assurance and Certification in Ecotourism, Ecotourism Series No 5, CABI Publishing UK.
Black, R, Crabtree, A. ed. (2007). Quality Assurance and Certification in Ecotourism, Ecotourism Series No 5, CABI Publishing UK
Blakesley, J. A. and K. P. Reese (1988). “Avian use of campground and noncampground sites in riparian zones.” Wildlife Management 52(3): 399-402.
Blamey, R. (1995). The Nature of Ecotourism. Canberra, BTR: 132-139.
Blaney, E., Wells, D. (2004). The influence of a camouflage net barrier on the behaviour, welfare and public perceptions of zoo-housed gorillas. ‎Anim. Welf. 13, 111-118. [captive wildlife, attitudes]
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